NABC Report 02: Agricultural Biotechnology, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality for the Consumer

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Published June 1990 by NABC.

Increasing media attention given to food safety and food quality in the year of the first United States approval of a genetically-engineered product for use in food production has focused on the coming of biotechnology to the food arena. See the intense public debate about the introduction genetically engineered bovine somatotropin (BST). The public concern about its use resulted in at least a temporary ban in some parts of Europe, and if approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) it will be initially banned in some parts of the United States. In this report, diverse viewpoints are expressed by speakers and in the workshops. Numerous examples of potential benefits that biotechnology can bring to food safety and food quality are presented: the first genetically-engineered, food-grade microbe, a baker's yeast with enhanced leavening properties; Chymosin as the first enzyme produced by a genetically engineered organism for use in cheese production replacing rennet; the DNA probe detects more quickly and earlier in the production process microbial contaminations.

However, lack of trust, value conflicts, unequal distribution of benefits and risks, failure to communicate influences the consumer’s willingness to accept biotechnology, probably influenced by past experience, when the promises of DDT, aerosol sprays and nuclear power were acclaimed at the time of their introduction, only to later be shown to pose environmental or health risks. In addition, something that is scientifically sound, and environmentally and nutritionally safe, may have social or economic consequences that are unacceptable to certain segments of the population. Finally, the public trust in the regulatory agencies is shaken.

The current lack of stringent food labeling guidelines, a scientifically undereducated public, and a loss of faith in traditional “experts" has resulted in a marketplace that is emotional and highly volatile in terms of food issues. This is due partly to lack of communication between stakeholders. The whole spectrum of issues related to biotechnology and food needs to he quietly discussed and carefully evaluated. In order to reach meaningful resolution, all voices must be heard, but first consumers need to be educated to understand both, terms and concepts, of this debate.

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 20
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    Potential economic impacts of agricultural biotechnology
    Martin, Marshall A. (NABC, 1990)
    Careful evaluation of the likely benefits and costs of biotechnology can ensure the timely and reasonable application of these emerging technology developments in our society. This will require increased research cooperation among bench and social scientists from a wide range of disciplines. in the Land-Grant system must design and implement appropriate public policy extension programs to help the public better understand the technical and socio-economic ramifications of alternative choices before us as a society.
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    The social impact of biotechnology on farming and food production
    Busch, Lawrence (NABC, 1990)
    Who shall control technological development? Should it serve narrow vested interests or broad public goods? Reinforce widely held values or to shatter them? Scientists have a special obligation to take these questions very seriously, and not to let funding sources, enthusiasm with the power of the new technology, or personal gain permit the avoidance of these difficult questions.
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    Risk: Ethical issues and values
    Thompson, Paul B. (NABC, 1990)
    Scientists will have to demonstrate Insight and sensitivity to the non quantitative factors that inform policy decisions on risk.
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    Biotechnologically modified animal Pproducts
    Byers, Floyd M. (NABC, 1990)
    The primary challenge is to develop systems employing current and new biotechnologies which will allow production of specific uniform products from diverse animal production systems in a range of designer foods.
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    The implications for biotechnology-related products of food safety and nutrition based marketing
    Caswell, Julie A. (NABC, 1990)
    The how will biotechnology-related products compete in a marketplace made up of traditional and conventionally processed products and those that are being marketed specifically on the basis of food safety and nutrition attribute.
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    Food processing biotechnology
    Harlander, Susan K. (NABC, 1990)
    Biotechnology could have a dramatic impact on the entire agriculture and food sector. It has the potential to reduce the need for agricultural chemicals; improve productivity, efficiency, and profitability of food production and processing; open new markets for improved or unique processed food products; improve the nutritional quality, safety, cost, and conve­nience of consumer food products.
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    Genetically engineered plant foods: tomatoes
    Kramer, Matthew G. (NABC, 1990)
    Development and field trials of genetically engineered tomatoes
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    Government Regulation: Insuring Safety and Quality
    Hutt, Peter Barton (NABC, 1990)
    A brief outline of the regulation of biotechnology across the board in the United States today. An important feature of this discussion is that its focus is not on laws and regulations for the issues of biotechnology, but rather on science.
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    Evaluating the relative safety of biotechnologically produced foods
    Pariza, Michael W. (NABC, 1990)
    If the public worries about the safety of the traditional food supply, it will worry ten times more about the safety of new foods. But there is big future for biotechnology in the development of special foods for persons with special medical problems foods for those who must avoid certain other dietary factors.
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    Biotechnology and food safety
    Crawford, Lester M. (NABC, 1990)
    Biotechnology is a new technology that is entering the marketplace at a time when consumers are anxious about the use of technology in food production. Consumers want “natural” products that are free of synthetic additives. They also want nutritious, convenient, high quality, well-packaged foods—all of which require technology. Biotechnology will help give consumers what they want.
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    Food related risks: A nutritionist’s perspective
    Nesheim, Malden C. (NABC, 1990)
    It is critical to recognize that we eat a varied diet, and that changes, whether through biotechnology or by traditional means, must be viewed in the context of entire food patterns, and not in terms of one food. Those dealing primarily with the nutritional aspects of food could actually be helpful to technologists as they plan food changes.
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    Biotechnological diagnostics for the detection of microbial contamination of food
    Parsons, George (NABC, 1990)
    The emergence of biotechnology diagnostic assays has influenced food microbiology. Time to results have been shortened and the quality and universality of results has been improved by the current generation of tests. Tests for additional pathogens and spoilage organisms are in.
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    Food safety and quality for the consumer: Policies and communication
    Foreman, Carol Tucker (NABC, 1990)
    Changes in the decision-making apparatus can improve “communication,” reduce value conflicts, and ultimately improve the pub­lic policies governing biotechnology
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    Farmer concerns: Food safety, biotechnology and the consumer
    Sorensen, A. Ann (NABC, 1990)
    Farmers are concerned about providing safe and nutritious food to the consumer. Revelations about pesticide residues and hormones in our food supply cause concern. The public lacks an understanding about modern farming practices. Farmers will have to make choices about products resulting from biotechnology- poorly understood technologies with profound effect on farming. Farmers have toc decide how these products will affect them and convey their needs and concerns to consumers.
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    Food related risks: A food scientist’s perspective
    Hotchkiss, Joseph H. (NABC, 1990)
    The hazards associated with foods in general have been determined. Biotechnology presents few hazards not previously considered and in some cases could substantially reduce risks. Unfortunately, food products derived from biotechnology will face the same dilemma as traditional foods when it comes to determining the magnitude and acceptability of each individual risk.
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    Many voices: Citizens and the issues of biotechnology and food safety
    Taylor, Kenneth J. (NABC, 1990)
    Social science research indicates that the faster the pace of change, and the more complex the proposed change, the greater the resistance to that change by those who perceive it to be a threat to their security.
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    Workshop Recommendations
    MacDonald, June F.; Barker, Robert (NABC, 1990)
    Meeting participants met in workshops and agreed on a set of recommendations to improve food safety and quality.
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    Food safety and quality: Assessing the impact of biotechnology
    Munro, In C.; Hall, Richard L. (NABC, 1990)
    The science of food safety has the tools and the know-how to provide a rigorous safety evaluation of new products. If good science leads, fair regulation will surely follow.
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    Summary
    Collmer, Candace W.; Flint, Harrison, L.; Parker, Russel C. (NABC, 1990)
    Meeting overview
  • Item
    Agricultural Biotechnology, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality for the Consumer
    (NABC, 1990)
    Increasing media attention given to food safety and food quality in the year of the first United States approval of a genetically-engineered product for use in food production has focused on the coming of biotechnology to the food arena. See the intense public debate about the introduction genetically engineered bovine somatotropin (BST). The public concern about its use resulted in at least a temporary ban in some parts of Europe, and if approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) it will be initially banned in some parts of the United States. In this report, diverse viewpoints are expressed by speakers and in the workshops. Numerous examples of potential benefits that biotechnology can bring to food safety and food quality are presented: the first genetically-engineered, food-grade microbe, a baker's yeast with enhanced leavening properties; Chymosin as the first enzyme produced by a genetically engineered organism for use in cheese production replacing rennet; the DNA probe detects more quickly and earlier in the production process microbial contaminations.