BEE 4530 - 2001 Student Papers

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Student research papers for Professor Ashim Datta's Biomed BEE 4530/Computer-aided Engineering course for 2000.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    Heat Treatment of an Enlarged Prostate
    Alexander, Conor; Cohen, Rich; Furman, Guy; Pino, Chris; Schleifer-Schneggenburger, Jill (2001-01-07T22:23:05Z)
    An enlarged prostate, known in the medical field as either benign prostate hyperplasia or benign prostate hypertrophy, is a common affliction among older men, resulting in a difficulty in urination. The condition is also dangerous because it can lead to infections of the kidney and bladder. A stent, made up of a shape memory alloy, such as nitinol, inserted in the urethra can serve as a means to rectify the problem ? the stent can deliver heat to the prostate, killing the obtrusive tissue. The goal of this simulation is to determine the time and power required to heat the stent to a point where a sufficient amount of inflamed tissue is killed while maintaining healthy tissue. Using GAMBIT to establish the geometry of the prostate and surrounding tissue, FIDAP can be implemented to solve the heating of the prostate by the stent. Temperature and damage profiles can be obtained to determine the appropriate wattage application and time for the procedure. We determined that the optimal way of heating was to use a lower heat flux for a longer time.
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    Drug Delivery in the Brain
    Poon, Billy (2001-01-07T22:11:50Z)
    In this study, the diffusion of nerve growth factor (NGF) from a polymeric matrix into brain tissue was simulated using the finite element method (FEM). Two release profiles were studied and it was found that a constant release rate was a much better candidate than the normal release profile achieved by a disc. The concentration profile at various points in the brain created by a constant release rate showed a sharp increase toward a steady state concentration. This is opposed to a giant spike in concentration, which subsequently drops to zero that was the result from the normal release profile. The implications of this study are that for the release of therapeutic compounds into the brain, a constant release implant is much more desirable because it avoids a huge concentration spike at the start, which can cause harmful effects, and can maintain a steady state concentration.
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    Delayed Effects of Hydrofluoric Acid Burn
    Felsovalyi, Flora; Jap, Bennett; Robilotto, Anthony; Tong, Gary (2001-01-07T22:09:22Z)
    Hydrofluoric acid burn is a common work related injury. After initial contact, hydrofluoric acid diffuses through the skin where it eventually reaches the bone. Once in contact, dissociated F- ions react with the calcium in the bone forming calcium difluoride. Because of this mechanism, exposures often go undetected until the internal damage is extensive and patients experience excruciating pain. Therefore, it is the purpose of our project, using finite element analysis, to model both the diffusion of HF through the skin and fat as well its reaction with calcium once it reaches the bone. We will attempt to determine the pattern of HF diffusion within the skin, fat, and bone layers; and most importantly, the time it takes for HF to reach the bone where irreversible damage occurs. We will also aim at determining the exact extent of the damage to the bone as a function of time. Finally, in our analysis we will vary the concentration of HF, its drop size, and the diffusivity of the dermal layers, and examine the effects on our results.
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    Making Your Sausage Clean. The Art of Sausage Sterilization
    Amobi, Ngozi; Lee, Jessica; Padron, Sonya; Price, Andrew (2001-01-07T22:06:04Z)
    Thermal processing of temperature and species within a sausage were modeled using FIDAP. A mesh was created in GAMBIT to recreate the sausage geometry; diameter = 0.072m and length = 0.21m. The sausage was assumed to be axis-symmetric, therefore one-quarter of a cylinder was modeled and used for analysis. A three step heating process was implemented using the time function in FIDAP: (1) smoke for 1 hour at 140 degrees Fahrenheit, (2) smoke at 160 degrees Fahrenheit, (3) smoke at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for two hours or until internal temperature reaches 155 F. The destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was analyzed. At the end of the three-step process (14400s), the sausage center reached its final temperature and all E.coli were destroyed.
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    Ferromagnetic Thermal Ablation of Prostate Tumor
    Avissar, Michael; Ishman, Naquan; Lee, Sui Ping; Patel, Payal (2001-01-07T22:01:00Z)
    There are many forms of treatment for prostate cancer. One set of treatments is called hyperthermia, the heating of tumor tissue to destroy it. Thermal ablation is a form of hyperthermia that destroys both normal and cell tissue. It occurs at temperatures of about 46 C or above. Heating is accomplished via various methods that have their own advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, heating can be local, regional, or whole-body, meaning it can focus on small specific location, large organ areas, or the whole body. Our project focuses on ferromagnetic heating of local tumors. Ferromagnetic materials are magnetic materials that heat under an alternating, appropriately oriented, magnetic field. They heat until they reach their Curie point, the temperature at which they become non-magnetic and stop heating. The advantages of ferromagnetic heating is that is self-regulating since ferromagnetic implants will not heat beyond their Curie point, it can be easily localized since implants can be inserted in various configuratoins, it is repeatable if the implants do not degrade, and it is relatively inexpensive. Our goal was to simulate, via computational methods, the work done by Thermal Ablation Technologies, a company that designs ferromagnetic heating systems for thermal ablation of prostate tumors. We will examine the results of computer simulations of single implants and an array of implants. These results will be displayed in the form of temperature contours at specific times and temperature-time history plots at specific locations. We will determine from our analysis which parameters of ferromagnetic implant design are most crucial.
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    Optimization of Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer
    Beelitz, Carolyn; Bui, Jojo; Connelly, John; Mukherjee, Rani; Pan, Katy (2001-01-07T21:56:58Z)
    Chemotherapy is a common treatment method for lung cancer. Using FIDAP, this study simulated the diffusion of the drug, Cisplatin, from the blood stream throughout a lung tumor that partially blocked an airway. Two treatment methods were compared by the level of exposure (area under the concentration vs. time plot). One method was a single dose at time zero and the other method was the same dose spread over an entire day. The results show that both methods have nearly the same levels of exposure (AUC). The main difference between the treatments was a higher peak concentration with the single dose. It was also shown that diffusivity had a significant impact on the peak concentration and level of exposure.
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    Freezing a Fillet-o-Fish
    Fong, Jeannette; Ishikawa, Dave; Jackson, Andrea; Leung, Andrea; Yeung, Roger (2001-01-07T21:52:52Z)
    The frozen food industry is a billion dollar industry that demands efficient manufacturing of consumer products. Through modeling the freezing within a fish fillet, the process of storing and distributing this product is better understood. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the time to freeze a fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) of known shape and properties. Then through utilizing the fillet temperature, the shelf life or freshness is determined through a consumer based freshness test that provides a nominal shelf life for common species, including tilapia. Another objective is to determine the bacteria concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, common bacteria found on fish and other seafoods, during and after freezing. Using Gambit and FIDAP, a three dimensional slab of 10cm x 5cm x 2 cm was modeled in a -4?C freezer where each side was exposed to convection except for the bottom which was simulated as resting on a surface (a shelf in the freezer). This fillet model froze in ~ 45 minutes and the shelf life was determined to be 22 days, according to the industry freshness chart by Dr. Joe Regenstein. The initial concentration of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 1x105 CFU (colony forming units). After freezing, this concentration decreased to 9.8x10-4 or 0.2%.
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    Comparison of Vaccine Freezing Methods
    Matthews, James; Cunningham, Megan; Joslin, Lisa; Peterson, David (2001-04-05T21:47:39Z)
    We have developed a temperature-sensitive vaccine formulation in a glass vial that needs to be frozen prior to lyophilization.The method for freezing the vial has traditionally been liquid nitrogen tunnel freezing, but this method can be expensive and has problems with sterilization of the tunnel.We explored the advantages of a shelf-freezing method and did a comparison analysis on the two freezing methods to determine which situation was the preferred one.For our analysis, the vaccine vial dimensions were obtained from research performed by Merck & Co., Inc.We predicted that the shelf-freezing method would take too long to freeze the vaccine, which in turn would decrease the potency of the vaccine.We simulated both freezing methods using the Gambit and FIDAP programs to produce two different designs.For the sensitivity analysis, we manipulated the boundary temperatures of the shelf and the liquid nitrogen as well as the convective coefficient for the ambient air in the shelf design.We determined that the shelf freezing method was the most optimal for the freezing of the vial when we lowered the shelf temperature due to the small differences in the freezing times between the two methods.
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    Normal vs. Abnormal Pharyngeal Bolus Transport
    Lo, Peter; Meng, Yizhi; Srikiatden, Jaruk (2001-01-07T21:41:07Z)
    Normal and abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) processes in the pharynx were modeled using the computer-aided engineering software, FIDAP. In the normal case, boundary conditions for the epiglottis were established to prevent fluid flow into the larynx/trachea area. In the abnormal case, the boundary conditions for epiglottis were changed to allow some flow into the larynx/trachea. The program converged successfully when the mesh was simplified, and two distinct flow patterns were observed for both normal and abnormal cases. Sensitivity analysis of abnormal swallowing behavior showed that the flow present in the trachea was slower at higher viscosities. This suggests that the method of feeding dysphagia patients with thickened liquids is useful in preventing aspiration.