Cornell International Affairs Review - Volume 12, Number 2 (Spring 2019)

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    Reparations for "Comfort Women": Feminist Geopolitics and Changing Gender Ideologies in South Korea
    Kim, Min Ji (Cornell University Library, 2019-05-01)
    This paper studies feminist geopolitical practices in South Korea in the context of “comfort women” forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese military around the Second World War. Although there has been a considerable amount of literature penned on the comfort women issue, existing discussions focus largely on the conflict between nationalist and feminist paradigms, while largely minimizing feminist activism and changing gender narratives within Korean society. Therefore, this research aims to expand the field by considering the struggles that comfort women have endured through the lens of feminist geopolitical scholarship. I argue that comfort women activism constitutes a form of feminist geopolitical practice in a way that challenges masculine gender narratives. It has opened up new spaces where comfort women survivors can produce a sense of “survivorhood” and move beyond passivity throughout their lives. The rise of their active voices signals the overturning of traditional patriarchal structures; consequently, along with other forms of activism, these narratives have eventually led to a shift in public attitudes. Unlike how nationalist accounts were dominant in the early 1990s, the increased public attention towards the feminist accounts in the mid-2010s has subsequently increased media coverage of survivors and feminist practices.
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    National Liberation Movements and Increasing Humanitarian Law Compliance
    Abt, Parker (Cornell University Library, 2019-05-01)
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    Exploring Policy Conditions for Cyber Deterrence: A Case Study of Estonia
    Oh, Lionel (Cornell University Library, 2019-05-01)
    This article seeks to study the policy conditions for the successful application of deterrence theory in cyberspace. While the tenets of classical deterrence theory are difficult to apply to cyberspace, understanding the applicability of these concepts in the cyber context is crucial as cyberspace continues to transform into a prominent domain of conflict. Classical deterrence has always been closely associated with a Cold War-era nuclear context, and its translation to cyberspace will require a broader approach to account for changes in the nature of the domain. The success of Estonia’s multi-faceted deterrence efforts after experiencing a large-scale cyber-attack in 2007 shows the effectiveness of such a conception of deterrence to the realm of cyberspace, through the implementation of international and domestic level policies. I analyze how Estonia has managed to implement this deterrence framework by punishment, denial, multilateral cooperation and promotion of international norms, and an increase in societal strength and resilience among its population.
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    Cornell International Affairs Review: Spring 2019
    Cornell International Affairs Review, Editorial Board (Cornell University Library, 2019-05-01)
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    Summer Camps and Civil War: Deconstructing the Huthi Rebellion in Yemen
    Klapprodt, Hannah (Cornell University Library, 2019-05-01)
    This project investigates the rise of the Yemeni insurgent group, AnsarAllah (commonly known as the Huthis), from its conception in the summer camps of the Zaidi Believing Youth movement to its successful rebellion against the internationally-backed Yemeni government in September 2014. The Huthi movement gained a large following by protesting government corruption, injustice, and Saudi and American activity in Yemen. A constructivist analysis of these grievances reveals flaws in the Yemeni nation-state building process as nationalist narratives were created in opposition to Zaidism—the second most practiced branch of Islam in Yemen and a defining element of Huthi identity. Under the guise of “transitional democracy,” the Yemeni state developed as a pluralist authoritarian regime that marginalized Zaidi communities. Anti-Zaidi discourse created exclusionary categories of Yemeni identity, which were intensified by a series of hostile interactions between the state and Huthi leaders. In 2004, the state rationalized violence against the Huthis by framing them as a “national security threat” and an Iranian proxy. These discourses mobilized additional domestic and international actors against the Huthis and catalyzed a series of complex conflicts that eventually culminated in the current civil war. Overall, the Huthis’ journey from summer camps to militancy was driven by marginalization in the new Yemeni nation-state, perceived threats from Saudi Arabia and the United States, and the explosion of state violence against their dissidence.