Cornell International Affairs Review - Volume 15, Number 1 (Fall 2021)

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    Cornell International Affairs Review: Fall 2021
    Cornell International Affairs Review, Editorial Board (Cornell University Library, 2022-05-11)
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    Genocide in Disguise: The Islamic State’s Persecution of Shi’a Muslims and The International Community’s Failure to Prevent and Punish Genocide
    Hussaini, Sumaya (Cornell University Library, 2022-05-11)
    The international community remains unwilling to protect vulnerable populations against genocide, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity, as evidenced by international oversight of the Bosnian and Rwandan genocides. This paper will examine this issue through a case study of the Islamic State’s (IS) persecution, ethnic cleansing, and unrecognized genocide of Shi’a Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria. While the United Nations Security Council has labeled IS’ attempts to exterminate Iraq’s Christian and Yazidi populations as genocide, little efort has been made to recognize, investigate, or prosecute IS’ crimes against the Shi’a. As I argue, the Islamic State’s systematic killing and cultural destruction of Shi’a Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria constitutes genocidal conduct under the Genocide Convention. As such, the International Criminal Court (ICC) has an obligation to recognize and investigate such activities through the creation of an international criminal tribunal dedicated to prosecuting members of IS for atrocities committed against the Shi’a. I further argue that use of veto power by permanent members of the Security Council should be restricted in the face of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes to ensure that the UN fulfills its guiding principles to prevent and punish atrocity crimes. I will also explain the legal significance of prosecuting a non-state actor for genocide at the ICC and the impact that this recognition would have on humanitarian policy, the integrity of early warning models for genocide, and justice for the Shi’a victims of the Islamic State’s brutality.
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    Red Robots: Chinese Military Modernization and Perceptions on Lethal Autonomous Weapons System
    Warren, Aiden; Hillas, Alek (Cornell University Library, 2022-05-11)
    The article assesses Chinese perceptions of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS), in the context of Xi Jinping’s Chinese Dream and China’s broader approach to military modernization and artificial intelligence (AI). It will first discuss how military modernization is employed by Chinese policymakers in addressing challenges posed by the United States. Secondly, this article will assess the connection between military modernization and the advancement of China’s innovation strategy and civil-military integration, as specified in sections relating to “Xi Jinping Thought.” The article concludes with an analysis of Chinese diplomats’ statements on LAWS at the United Nations—namely, Beijing’s views on the definition of LAWS, global AI governance and ethics, and the parameters of arms control. The analysis here suggests that China has sought guardrails to ban specific uses of LAWS for offensive purposes, while simultaneously arguing that it is illogical to regulate LAWS in a defensive context.