ItemCharacteristics of the Beef x Dairy Industry in New York State: A summary of survey data collected from New York State farmers in 2020-2021Quaassdorff, Margaret; Hicks, Betsy (2023-07)Data presented in this white paper are from a Qualtrics survey conducted online between the months of October 2020 and June 2021. Farmers were surveyed to assess how they utilize beef sires in their dairy herds, their criteria in selecting dairy animals to breed to beef sires, and sire selection criteria. Farmers were also surveyed on their management practices of producing, raising, marketing and selling BxD cattle, as well as information needed. The survey was open to all farmers in New York State who had an interest in, or were currently producing or growing, BxD animals. ItemMetabolic-digestive clinical disorders of lactating dairy cows were associated with alterations of rumination, physical activity, and lying behavior monitored by an ear-attached sensorRial, CLara (Journal of Dairy Science, 2023-06-28)The objective of this observational cohort study was to characterize the pattern of rumination time (RT), physical activity (PA), and lying time (LT) monitored by an automated health monitoring system, based on an ear-attached sensor, immediately before, during, and after clinical diagnosis (CD) of metabolic-digestive disorders. Sensor data were collected from 820 lactating Holstein cows monitored daily from calving up to 21 DIM for detection of health disorders (HD). Cows were grouped retrospectively in the no-clinical health disorder group (NCHD; n = 616) if no HD were diagnosed, or the metabolic-digestive group (METB-DIG; n = 58) if diagnosed with clinical ketosis or indigestion only. Cows with another clinical health disorder within -7 to +7 d of CD of displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, or indigestion were included in the metabolic-digestive plus one group (METB-DIG+1; n = 25). Daily RT, PA, and LT, and absolute and relative changes within -7 to +7 d of CD were analyzed with linear mixed models with or without repeated measures. Rumination time and PA were smaller, and LT was greater for the METB-DIG and METB-DIG+1 group than for cows in the NCHD group for most days from -7 to +7 d of CD of HD. In general, daily RT, PA, and LT differences were larger between the METB-DIG+1 and NCHD groups than between the METB-DIG and NCHD groups. In most cases, RT and PA decreased to a nadir and LT increased to a peak immediately before or after CD of HD, with a return to levels similar to the NCHD group within 7 d of CD. Absolute values and relative changes from 5 d before CD to the day of the nadir for RT and PA or peak for LT were different for cows in the METB-DIG and METB-DIG+1 group than for the NCHD group. For PA, the METB-DIG+1 group had greater changes than the METB-DIG group. For cows affected by metabolic-digestive disorders, RT, PA, and LT on the day of CD and resolution of clinical signs were different than for cows in the NCHD group, but an increase in RT and PA or a decrease in LT was observed from the day of CD to the day of resolution of clinical signs. We conclude that dairy cows diagnosed with metabolic-digestive disorders including displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, and indigestion presented substantial alterations in the pattern of RT, PA, and LT captured by an ear-attached sensor. Thus, automated health monitoring systems based on ear-attached sensors might be used as an aid for identifying cows with metabolic-digestive disorders. Moreover, RT, PA, and LT changes after CD might be positive indicators of recovery from metabolic-digestive disorders. ItemMetritis and clinical mastitis events in lactating dairy cows were associated with altered patterns of rumination, physical activity, and lying behavior monitored by an ear-attached sensorC. Rial, A. Laplacette, L. Caixeta, C. Florentino, F. Peña-Mosca, and J. O. Giordano (Journal of Dairy Science, 2023-06-18)Understanding changes of behavioral parameters recorded by automated health monitoring systems based on ear-attached sensors on the days immediately before and after diagnosis of metritis and clinical mastitis can help develop dairy cow health monitoring and management strategies. Therefore, the objective of this observational cohort study was to characterize rumination time, physical activity, and lying time monitored by an ear-attached sensor immediately before, during, and after clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis and clinical mastitis. Lactating Holstein cows monitored daily for up to 21 DIM for detection of health disorders were retrospectively included in the no-clinical health disorder group (NCHD; n = 616) if no clinical health disorders were diagnosed. Cows were included in the metritis (MET; n = 69) or clinical mastitis (MAST; n = 36) group if diagnosed only with non-severe metritis (i.e., no systemic signs of disease) or clinical mastitis (i.e., no pyrexia and no systemic signs of disease), respectively. Cows diagnosed with severe metritis (i.e., systemic signs of disease) or clinical mastitis (i.e., pyrexia and systemic signs of disease), or cows diagnosed with non-severe metritis or clinical mastitis plus another clinical disorder within -7 to +7 d of CD of metritis or clinical mastitis diagnosis were included in the metritis plus (MET+; n = 25) or the clinical mastitis plus (MAST+; n = 15) group, respectively. All cows were fitted with an ear-attached accelerometer to measure rumination time, physical activity, and lying time. Data were summarized as mean daily values, mean value absolute change, and relative change for the mean daily value from 3 or 5 d before CD to the nadir for cows with metritis and clinical mastitis, respectively. Data were analyzed with linear mixed models with or without repeated measures as appropriate. Rumination time and physical activity were lesser, and lying time was greater for the MET and MET+ groups than for the NCHD group for most days from -4 to +7 d of CD of metritis. Generally, daily rumination time, physical activity, and lying time differences were larger and more prolonged between the MET+ and NCHD groups than between the MET and NCHD groups. Similarly, cows in the MAST and MAST+ groups had lesser rumination time and physical activity than cows in the NCHD group for several days before diagnosis of clinical mastitis. Lying time was greater for the MAST+ than the NCHD group on day -1 and 0 relative to CD, but there were no differences with the MAST group. Absolute values and relative changes from 3 d before CD to the day of the nadir for rumination time and physical activity, or peak for lying time were different for cows in the MET and MET+ groups than for the NCHD group. Similar results were observed for the MAST and MAST+ groups compared with the NCHD group. For cows affected by metritis, either an increase in rumination time and physical activity or a decrease in lying time was observed from the day of CD to resolution of clinical signs but no changes were observed for the NCHD. Similarly, cows with clinical mastitis and the NCHD group had different rumination time, physical activity, and lying time on the day of CD and resolution of clinical signs, but cows with clinical mastitis had no significant changes from the day of CD to resolution of clinical signs. We conclude that dairy cows affected by metritis and clinical mastitis presented substantial alterations of the pattern of rumination time, physical activity, and lying time captured by an ear-attached sensor. Thus, automated health monitoring systems based on ear-attached sensors might be used as an aid for identifying cows with metritis and clinical mastitis. Moreover, rumination time, physical activity, and lying time changes after CD might be good indicators of resolution of clinical signs of metritis but not mastitis. ItemSupplementary tables for Effect of reproductive management programs that prioritized AI at detected estrus or timed AI on the economic performance of primiparous Holstein cows of different genetic merit for fertilitySitko, Emily; Giordano, Julio O.; Di Croce, Fernando A.; McNeel, Anthony K.; Weigel, Dan J. (2023-06-23)The objective of this randomized controlled experiment was to evaluate the effect of reproductive management programs that prioritized or AI at detected estrus (AIE) or timed AI (TAI) during the first lactation on the economic performance of dairy cows of different genomically-enhanced predicted transmitting ability for fertility. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows from six commercial farms were stratified into high, medium, and low fertility groups based on a Reproduction Index (RI) value calculated from multiple genomically enhanced predicted transmitting abilities to predict the number of days to achieve pregnancy. Within herd and fertility group, cows were randomly assigned either to a program that prioritized AIE (P-AIE; n = 1,416) and used TAI for cows not AIE for all AI services or another that prioritized TAI and had an extended VWP for first service and prioritized TAI for second and greater AI services (P-TAI; n = 1,338). Cash flow (CF) per cow accumulated for the experimental (first) and second calving interval and cash flow per slot per 28 mo after calving in the experimental lactation were calculated. Market and rearing heifer cost values were used for estimating CF. For cows in the Hi-Fert group, a positive effect of delayed pregnancy on milk income during the first lactation was observed but was insufficient to generate significant differences in CF between treatments mainly because of milk income compensation in the second lactation and minor reductions in reproductive cost and gains in calf value for the P-AIE treatment. In this regard, CF for two CI was greater for the P-TAI treatment. Similarly, CF per slot was favorable to the P-TAI treatment. For cows in the Lo-Fert group, CF was numerically in favor of the P-AIE treatment due to a pregnancy and herd exit dynamics that resulted in gains in milk IOFC during the first and second lactation. Differences in CF between cows of different genetic merit for fertility were consistent across treatment and estimation method. Of note, cows in the Lo-Fert group had greater cash flow than cows in the Hi-Fert group in all comparisons. For the Lo-Fert group, greater milk production contributed directly (milk IOFC) and indirectly (reduced culling) to increased cash flow. We concluded that genetic merit for fertility and cash flow are associated because cows of inferior genetic potential for fertility had greater cash flow than cows of superior genetic for fertility despite some increased costs and reduced revenues. Also, the magnitude of the cash flow differences observed for cows of different genetic merit for fertility managed with the P-AIE or P-TAI program may be valuable to commercial dairy farms but did not allow to conclusively support the choice of a type of reproductive management strategy for cows of different genetic merit for fertility. ItemSupplementary tables for Effect of reproductive management programs that prioritized AI at detected estrus or timed AI on the reproductive performance of primiparous Holstein cows of different genetic merit for fertilitySitko, Emily M.; Giordano, Julio O.; Perez, Martin M.; Granados, German E.; Masello, Magdalena; Sosa Hernandez, Froylan; Cabrera, Elisa M.; Schilkowsky, Ellen M.; Di Croce, Fernando A.; McNeel, Anthony K.; Weigel, Dan J. (2023-06-23)Our objective was to compare reproductive outcomes of primiparous lactating Holstein cows of different genetic merit for fertility submitted for insemination with management programs that prioritized AI at detected estrus (AIE) or timed AI (TAI). Moreover, we aimed to determine if subgroups of cows with different fertility potential would present a distinct response to the reproductive management strategies compared. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 6 commercial farms) were stratified into high (Hi-Fert), medium (Med-Fert), and low (Lo-Fert) genetic fertility groups (FG) based on a Reproduction Index (RI) value calculated from multiple genomically enhanced predicted transmitting abilities (gPTA). Within herd and fertility group, cows were randomly assigned either to a program that prioritized TAI and had an extended VWP (P-TAI; n = 1,338) or another that prioritized AIE (P-AIE; n = 1,416) and used TAI for cows not AIE. Cows in P-TAI received first service by TAI at 84 ± 3 DIM after a Double-Ovsynch protocol, were AIE if detected in estrus after a previous AI and received TAI after an Ovsynch-56 protocol at 35 ± 3 d after a previous AI if a corpus luteum (CL) was visualized at nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) 32 ± 3 d after AI. Cows with no CL visualized at NPD received TAI at 42 ± 3 d after AI after an Ovsynch-56 protocol with progesterone supplementation (P4-Ovsynch). Cows in P-AIE were eligible for AIE after a PGF2α treatment at 53 ± 3 DIM and after a previous AI. Cows not AIE by 74 ± 3 DIM or by NPD 32 ± 3 d after AI received P4-Ovsynch for TAI at 74 ± 3 DIM or 42 ± 3 d after AI. Binary data were analyzed with logistic regression, count data with Poisson regression, continuous data by ANOVA, and time to event data by Cox’s proportional hazard regression. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) to first service was greater for cows in the Hi- (59.8%) than the Med- (53.6%) and Lo-Fert (47.7%) groups, and for the P-TAI (58.7%) than the P-AIE (48.7%) treatment. Overall, P/AI for all second and subsequent AI combined did not differ by treatment (P-TAI = 45.2%; P-AIE = 44.5%) or FG (Hi-Fert = 46.1%; Med-Fert = 46.0%; Lo-Fert = 42.4%). The hazard of pregnancy after calving was greater for the P-AIE than the P-TAI treatment [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.37)], and for the Hi-Fert than the Med-Fert (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.28) and Lo-Fert (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.49) groups. More cows in the Hi- (91.2%) than the Med- (88.4%) and Lo-Fert (85.8%) groups were pregnant at 200 DIM. Within FG, the hazard of pregnancy was greater for the P-AIE than the P-TAI treatment for the Hi-Fert (HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.64) and Med-Fert (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.46) groups but not for the Lo-Fert group (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.31). We conclude that primiparous Holstein cows of superior genetic merit for fertility had better reproductive performance than cows of inferior genetic merit for fertility regardless of the type of reproductive management used. In addition, the effect of programs that prioritized AIE or TAI on reproductive performance for cows of superior or inferior genetic merit for fertility depended on the outcomes evaluated. Thus, programs that prioritize AIE or TAI could be used to affect certain outcomes of reproductive performance or management. ItemSupplemental tables for Balancing dairy cattle diets for rumen nitrogen and methionine or all essentail amino acids relative to metabolizable energyLaPierre, P. Andrew; Van Amburgh, Michael; Higgs, Ryan; Chase, Larry; Schwab, Charles; Sloan, Brian; Lucini, Daniel (2023-01)Improving the ability of diet formulation models to more accurately predict AA supply while appropriately describing requirements for lactating dairy cattle pro- vides an opportunity to improve animal productivity, reduce feed costs, and reduce N intake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a new version of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) to formulate diets for rumen N, Met, and all essential AA (EAA). Sixty-four high-producing dairy cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 following diets in a 14-wk longitudinal study: (1) limited metabo- lizable protein (MP), Met, and rumen N (Base), (2) adequate Met but limited MP and rumen N (Base + M), (3) adequate Met and rumen N, but limited MP (Base + MU), and (4) adequate MP, rumen N, and bal- anced for all EAA (Positive). All diets were balanced to exceed requirements for ME relative to maintenance and production, assuming a nonpregnant, 650-kg ani- mal producing 40 kg of milk at 3.05% true protein and 4.0% fat. Dietary MP was 97.2, 97.5, 102.3, and 114.1 g/kg of dry matter intake for the Base, Base + M, Base + MU, and Positive diets, respectively. Differences were observed for dry matter intake and milk yield (24.1 to 24.7 and 39.4 to 41.1 kg/d, among treatments). Energy corrected milk, fat, and true protein yield were greater (2.9, 0.13, and 0.08 kg/d, respectively) in cows fed the Positive compared with the Base diet. Using the updat- ed CNCPS, cattle fed the Base, Base + M, and Base + MU diets were predicted to have a negative MP balance (−231, −310, and −142 g/d, respectively), whereas cattle fed the Positive diet consumed 33 g of MP/d excess to ME supply. Bacterial growth was predicted to be depressed by 16 and 17% relative to adequate N supply for the Base and Base + M diets, respectively, which corresponded with the measured lower apparent total-tract NDF degradation. The study demonstrates that improvements in lactation performances can be achieved when rumen N and Met are properly supplied and further improved when EAA supply are balanced relative to requirements. Formulation using the revised CNCPS provided predictions for these diets, which were sensitive to changes in rumen N, Met, all EAA, and by extension MP supply. ItemSupplemental File from: Epidemiology of bovine colostrum production in New York Holstein herds: Cow, management, and environmental factorsWesthoff, T.A.; Womack, S.J.; Overton, T.R.; Ryan, C.M.; Mann, S. (2022-12) ItemSupplemental Tables from: Lipopolysaccharide challenge following intravenous amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: I. Production, metabolic, and hormonal responsesChandler, T.L.; Westhoff, T.A.; Overton, T.R.; Lock, A.L.; Van Amburgh, M.E.; Sipka, A.S.; Mann, S. (2022-01) ItemScience and Industry Work to Improve Phosphorus Management on New York Dairy FarmsChase, L. E.; Reed, K. F. (2020-07-12)Phosphorus (P) is a key mineral in dairy cattle rations and farm nutrient management. In the dairy cow, P is essential for bone growth and repair, nerve function muscle contraction and acid-base buffering in blood and the rumen. Phosphorus is also a key element for energy metabolism at the cellular level. In crops, P is an essential element in photosynthesis and stimulates root development. Phosphorus is needed for energy transfer and is component of DNA which is required for plant growth and reproduction. Management of P in agricultural, urban and natural ecosystems has become an increasingly important topic because increasing P levels in aquatic environments has led to ecosystem imbalances including harmful algal blooms. The goals of P management on the dairy farm are to provide adequate P in the ration to support milk production, reproduction and health while minimizing excretion of manure P which can be lost to the environment. ItemScience and Industry Work to Improve Nitrogen Management on New York Dairy FarmsChase, L. E.; Reed, K. F. (2021-05-25)Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient for dairy cattle and is the building block of amino acids and proteins in animals and plants. Nitrogen in feed is either used to support milk and milk protein production or it is excreted via urine and feces. Crude protein (CP) is the term commonly used to describe the N content of feeds and rations and is calculated as N content * 6.25 (e.g., a forage with 2.88% N contains 18% CP). Nitrogen is also important for soil nutrient cycling, crop growth, and the environment. Excess N excreted by the cow is a concern for both air (ammonia) and water quality. In addition, excreted manure N contributes to greenhouse gas emissions by contributing to the production of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. The goal of feeding dairy cows is to provide adequate N to support maintenance, growth, reproduction, and milk production while minimizing excretion of N to the environment. ItemPalmitic Acid, Milk Fat, and Hard Butter - What's All of the Fuss About?Overton, Thomas R.; Barbano, David M.; Van Amburgh, Michael E.; McFadden, Joseph W. (2021-03)The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide information on how milk fat is synthesized and to provide additional context for the consumer and those involved in the discussion. ItemSAS Code for Technical note: Comparison among three methods for evaluating clinical mastitis frequency in dairy cows: cow-level risk, cow-level rate, and quarter–level rateAlanis, Valeria M.; Tomazi, Tiago; Santisteban, Carlos; Nydam, Daryl V.; Ospina, Paula A. (2020-11-06)The lack of standardization in reporting clinical mastitis incidence limits the ability to compare results across multiple studies without additional calculations. There is both a biological and statistical rationale for evaluating the at-risk period at the quarter level. This study aimed to calculate the clinical mastitis (CM) incidence rate at quarter level in an open population prospective cohort of eight commercial dairy farms monitored from May 15, 2016 to May 31, 2017. The specific objectives were: (1) to outline an applied method for calculating CM incidence rate at the quarter level using currently available software; and (2) to compare the results of the three different measurements: cow-level incidence risk, cow-level incidence rate, and quarter-level incidence rate. All CM cases (n=7,513 milk) were identified by trained on-farm personnel, who collected all milk samples from all quarters with visibly abnormal milk. Microbiological identification was determine by culture and MALDI-TOF. All lactating quarters were at risk for CM. A quarter was at risk for a new CM case if there was at least 14 d between a previously diagnosed case and the current case in the same quarter, or if a different pathogen was isolated in the same quarter within 14 d. A total of 17,513,429 quarters days at risk (QDAR) were estimated. A SAS macros and SQL were used to bring all data together. The cow-level rate (16.6 cases per 10,000 cow-days).The quarter-level incidence rate (4.4 cases per 10,000 QDAR). The cow-level incidence risk (4.8 cases per 100 cows). Although numerically similar, it is important to note that both calculations represent different outcomes and answers different questions. Quarter-level incidence rate takes into account the sum of the time that each quarter remained under observation and at risk of developing CM. Although the evaluation of QDAR requires additional computation when compared to other methods, it might allow for a more precise evaluation of the data and a more accurate evaluation of mastitis incidence. A consensus about the methods used to report mastitis incidence will improve our ability to discuss and learn about the differences and similarities across studies, regions, and countries. ItemFeeding Strategies During Challenging TimesOverton, Tom; Chase, Larry (2018-03)Difficult economics in the dairy industry now and likely for much of 2018 have herd owners and their advisors working to find opportunities to increase margins and/or cut costs. Using averages from 36 New York farms that completed both the 2016 and 2017 Cornell Dairy Farm Business Summary (Karszes et al., February 2018 PRO-DAIRY e-Leader), purchased grain and concentrate cost averaged $5.81 per cwt of milk (31% of total operating costs) and total feed and crop expenses averaged $7.34 per cwt of milk (39% of total operating costs). Given the large contribution of feed and crop expenses to total operating costs, it is logical to carefully evaluate these aspects of management. In this paper we outline five key focus areas to ensure that your feeding program is all that it can be. ItemManagement Considerations for Immature and Frosted Corn SilageChase, Larry (2019-08-15)The 2019 growing season in New York has again not been “normal.” Wet conditions delayed planting in many areas of the state. Later in the growing season, some areas were dry. On many farms, there are large differences in corn maturity between fields. There is a possibility that some corn will not reach “normal” maturity when it is harvested. Growing degree days in August and September will be key in determining maturity at harvest. An early frost will further complicate the situation. ItemPrediction of Pregnancy Following Insemination of Dairy CowsLay, Debbie (2007-07-06T14:42:53Z)Plasma samples from dairy cows across two seasons (warm and cold) were re-assayed utilizing a more sensitive and uniform procedure in order to assess the use of progesterone and PGFM concentrations on the day of AI (Day 0) to day 8 in predicting future pregnancy status of the cow (pregnant vs. open, maintenance vs. loss of pregnancy). The effect of season on progesterone and PGFM serum levels was also assessed. Progesterone concentrations on the day of AI did not differ between cows inseminated during different seasons, nor did they differ between cows of different pregnancy statuses. PGFM concentrations on the day of AI also did not display any differences in cows of various pregnancy statuses, but there appeared to be a seasonal effect, with cold season cows maintaining higher PGFM levels than warm season cows. These results were unexpected, but do suggest that PGFM and progesterone levels on the day of AI may not be the best predictive factor for establishment of pregnancy.