ItemConsiderations for central anaerobic digestion of manure from multiple dairy farmsGeorge, Angela; Oliver, Jason; Ray, Lauren (PRO-DAIRY, 2023-03)Anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure to produce renewable natural gas (RNG) requires large-scale to be economically viable. Centralized manure AD-to-RNG systems can enable dairy farms of all sizes to collectively participate, including those who may not have the capital or land resources to build and operate their own AD system. One possible arrangement is to feed a single AD system with manure from multiple farms and upgrade biogas to RNG at the AD site. There are several factors to consider when planning for a centralized AD system for multiple farms; many are discussed in this fact sheet by Dairy Environmental Systems. ItemConsiderations for central biogas upgrading to renewable natural gas from anaerobic digestion on multiple dairy farmsGeorge, Angela; Oliver, Jason; Ray, Lauren (PRO-DAIRY, 2023-03)Anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure to produce renewable natural gas (RNG) requires large-scale to be economically viable. Centralized AD-to-RNG systems can enable multiple farms to collectively participate. One possible arrangement is to use a central biogas upgrading skid to upgrade biogas from multiple farms. This allows multiple farms with their own AD systems to convert biogas to RNG by sharing the cost of the RNG upgrading equipment and pipeline insertion point. There are several factors to consider when planning a centralized system; many are discussed in this fact sheet from Dairy Environmental Systems. ItemCalifornia Low Carbon Fuel Standard Carbon Intensity applied to New York State Dairy Manure Anaerobic Digestion to Renewable Natural GasRay, Lauren; Wright, Peter (2023-02)The information provided in this analysis report of California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (CA LCFS) Carbon Intensity (CI) score applied to biomethane or renewable natural gas (RNG) produced from dairy manure anaerobic digestion (AD) located on a New York (NY) State dairy farm can be used to understand the different CI score components and relative importance of them, as well as the opportunities to improve the score, total greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, and revenue from CA LCFS credits and from RINs under the U.S. EPA Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). An example NY dairy AD-to-RNG project CI score is computed using the CA LCFS Tier 1 CI Calculator and six different project scenarios are compared, including options to use part of the AD biogas for digester heating and to cover the digested effluent long-term storage. While the CI score under the CA LCFS program uses a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) for GHGs, a comparison of the total GHG reduction of the example project using the NY-adopted 20-year GWP is given in the summary. ItemCovered manure storage calculatorShepherd, Timothy; Karszes, Jason; Gooch, Curt (PRO-DAIRY, 2008-12-20)The dairy manure storage cost calculator help farms perform a partial budget of an impermeable flexible cover and flare on their dairy farm system. The farm inputs needed include the number of cows and heifers whose manure go into the storage, the surface area of the storage, and the farms manure spreading costs. The water excluded from the storage can be estimated for NYS by determining the average annual precipitation and subtracting the average annual evaporation shown on the illustration included. The current cover and flare costs will need to be estimated. An interest rate and cover life can be chosen and entered. If a grant will be used a negative additional capital cost can be entered. If carbon credits are anticipated the calculator will estimate the metric tons of carbon dioxide eq that can be captured and combusted. The calculation will provide the estimated total capital cost, the average annual cost over the lifetime, the annual average precipitation avoided, the average annual land application savings as well as an estimate of the potential carbon credits. There may be an additional benefit from nitrogen savings under the cover and protection from extreme rain events. Annual O&M costs for the cover and flare or for the verification of carbon credits are not considered. ItemEconomic Feasibility Case Study of Co-Digestion of Manure and Food Waste on a Northern NY DairyGeorge, Angela; Ray, Lauren; Wright, Peter (2023-01)A case study of the economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and food waste (co-digestion) on a Northern New York dairy farm was conducted that considered two scenarios. Scenario One analyzed the use of the farm's existing anaerobic digester to electricity system processing manure from it's herd of 1,860 lactating cow equivalents to take in a local source of cheese whey in a ratio of 20% by volume in the digester. Scenario Two analyzed the economic feasibility of a new anaerobic co-digestion system at the same size and location dairy farm that would take in 50% by volume of mixed food waste from local food and beverage manufacturers with the dairy's manure. Scenario Two included biogas upgrading to renewable natural gas (RNG) or biomethane for injection into the adjacent utility gas pipeline and sale to a third party. Net present value and the benefit-to-cost ratio are presented with the detailed capital and operating costs and benefits for each scenario. ItemDo’s and Don’ts for Barn Snow RemovalGooch, Curt; Steinberg, Sam (PRO-DAIRY, 2014-11-21)Removal of significant snow accumulations off of a barn roof is best performed in a systematic way to reduce the risk of injury or death to both barn occupants and those working on the roof. Removing roof snow without a proper approach may cause more damage than if left alone in some cases by creating an unbalanced and/or concentrated roof loads. ItemCentralized Systems for Anaerobic Digestion to Renewable Natural GasGeorge, Angela; Ray, Lauren (2022-09)Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure can be configured in various centralized systems involving multiple farms to achieve economy of scale for renewable natural gas (RNG), also known as biomethane, energy production. An overview of 3 configurations including aggregated manure to a central digester and aggregated biogas to centralized RNG upgrading are illustrated in this fact sheet. The key considerations and questions for discussion among participating dairy farms and the project developer are listed for these configurations. ItemAnaerobic Digestion at Greenwood Dairy: Case StudyGeorge, Angela (2022-06)A case study of Greenwood Dairy's manure anaerobic digestion to electricity system located in Canton, NY. The complete mix mesophilic digester was installed in 2014 and the biogas is utilized onsite to produce electricity using an engine-generator set. The electricity supplies the farm's needs and also some utility grid export through net metering. Waste heat from the engine is captured for heating the digester. ItemVegetative treatment areas: Planning, design, construction, documentationWright, Peter (2022)Trainings for engineers focusing on Manure Storage and Transfer, and Barnyard Runoff Control and Vegetative Treatment Areas, for dairy farms in the Lake Champlain Basin, were offered in October 2021 and April 2022. ItemManure storage: Planning, design, construction, and documentationWright, Peter (2022)Trainings for engineers focusing on Manure Storage and Transfer, and Barnyard Runoff Control and Vegetative Treatment Areas, for dairy farms in the Lake Champlain Basin, were offered in October 2021 and April 2022. ItemManure transfer: Planning, design, construction, documentationWright, Peter (2022)Trainings for engineers focusing on Manure Storage and Transfer, and Barnyard Runoff Control and Vegetative Treatment Areas, for dairy farms in the Lake Champlain Basin, were offered in October 2021 and April 2022. ItemDairy operations and facilities: An overviewWright, Peter; Gooch, Curt (2022) ItemBarnyard runoff control: Planning, design, construction, documentationWright, Peter (2022) ItemTo Retrofit Or Not To Retrofit, That Is The Question!Terry, Timothy (PRO-DAIRY, 2022-07)Dairy farming is a constantly changing business. Farming for the long-term will require a facility that can change, as well. Expansion, new technology, and new enterprises may all be in every sustainable farm’s future. Planning for a new, or remodeling and retrofitting an existing facility, is best done carefully and thoughtfully. We have all seen farms laid out in a chaotic array of buildings, and driveways that are inefficient now and make future improvements difficult or even impossible. ItemCalifornia Low Carbon Fuel Standard Carbon Intensity Applied to New York State DairiesRay, Lauren; Wright, Peter (2022-05)The carbon intensity (CI) score is used to appropriately value a unit of transportation fuel under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) policy. This fact sheet series will cover the CI score related to biomethane, also known as renewable natural gas (RNG), produced from the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure, as applicable to New York State (NYS) dairy farms. Part 1 covers the CI score terminology, use, and components. Part 2 covers useful guidelines on the Tier 1 CI computation applicable to NYS dairy digester projects. ItemBiogas UtilizationRay, Lauren (Dairy Environmental Systems Program, 2021-12)Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion at a dairy farm can be utilized in several ways. To date in New York State, biogas has been predominantly utilized to fuel combined heat and power (CHP) systems to produce electricity and digester heating energy. The commercially available CHP technology options are compared in Table 1. Other biogas utilization options include fueling a boiler and producing renewable natural gas (RNG) that is suitable for either vehicle fueling or natural gas pipeline injection. This fact sheet series will describe each of the four primary CHP technology options with information on dairy farm applications, biogas conditioning requirements, capital and operating cost, and emissions. In addition, the series will describe the options of utilizing a boiler and producing RNG. This fact sheet (Part 1) contains an overview of the CHP options. ItemUsing Wet Brewers and Wet Distillers Grains on Dairy FarmsChase, L.E. (Dairy Environmental Systems Program, 2021-10)Brewers and distillers grains have been used as animal feeds for centuries. Wet brewers (WBG) and wet distillers (WDG) grains may also be available and used as feeds on farms. Using WBG and WDG as animal feed recycles feed nutrients and reduces the environmental impact of disposal in landfills, incineration, and composting. Using these feeds on the farm can also help in controlling purchased feed costs and improving profitability. Wet brewers and wet distillers’ grains can provide beneficial nutrients to the dairy cow diet. Storage considerations, key benefits, and constraints of using WBG and WDG are covered. ItemWet Brewers and Wet Distillers Grains in Dairy Cattle DietsChase, L.E. (Dairy Environmental Systems Program, 2021-10)Brewers and distillers grains have been used as animal feeds for centuries. Brewers grain is a co-product of brewing beer. Distillers grains are a co-product of ethanol production. The commercial feed industry routinely uses dried forms of these co-products in manufacturing grain mixes. Wet brewers (WBG) and wet distillers (WDG) grains may also be available and used as feeds on farms. Nutrient composition of WBG and WDG vary depending on the processing plant and the grain sources (barley, rice, corn, wheat) used. Using WBG and WDG as animal feed recycles feed nutrients and reduces the environmental impact of disposal in landfills, incineration, and composting. Using these feeds on the farm can also help in controlling purchased feed costs and improving profitability. ItemHow Food Waste Contributes to Greenhouse GasesSharpsteen, Eric; Wright, Peter (Dairy Environmental Systems Program, 2021-08)It is estimated that one-third of all food produced in the world each year for human consumption never reaches the table. This leads to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the food that is not consumed by the end-user. Food waste that enters landfills produces methane, a potent GHG, and does not allow the nutrients to be returned to the land. This fact sheet describes the primary sources of food waste, the GHG impact of food waste, mitigation opportunities including anaerobic digestion and specific opportunities and considerations for dairy farms. ItemFarm Safety - Manure HandlingTerry, Timothy; Wright, Peter (Dairy Environmental Systems Program, 2021-06)Dairy manure storage is a nutrient efficient and environmentally friendly way to allow recycling of the manure by field application during the growing season. During storage, bacteria and other anaerobic processes breakdown the manure and reform them into noxious compounds, such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The characteristics and concentration risk levels of these manure gases are described. This fact sheet focuses on the hazards associated with H2S and the best management practices to maintain farm safety around manure storage and handling systems.