BEE 4530 - 2002 Student Papers

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Student research papers for Professor Ashim Datta's Biomed BEE 4530/Computer-aided Engineering course for 2000.

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    Cryogenic Treatment of the Common Wart
    Cuneo, Kyle; LeBarron, Jamie; Reynolds, Jaimee; Tiberio, Christine; Yoo, Sylvia (2004-11-12T18:05:22Z)
    This study models the effect of applying subzero temperature liquids to the surface of a common wart. The goal was to determine which variables (i.e. conductivity of skin, temperature of liquid, duration of application) that affected the extent of wart death versus healthy skin damage and to maximize this ratio. The wart was analyzed as an axi-symmetric, isotropic solid that protrudes from the skin surface. GAMBIT was used to create the mesh of skin and wart, and FIDAP was used to conduct finite element analysis to model the freezing process. Our results showed that liquid nitrogen was the most effective agent for cryogenic treatment of warts. The application time that resulted in maximal wart death and minimal skin damage was nine seconds with liquid nitrogen. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the impact of changes in parameters and properties. The bioheat term and changes in the heat transfer coefficient did not significantly affect the results. However, a thermal conductivity that varied with temperature produced significantly different results compared to a constant conductivity.
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    The Effects of Topical Heating for Therapeutic Uses
    Davis, Philip M.; Gaborski, Thomas; Pardo, Jaime; Patcha, Prasanth; Whitman, Kimberly (2004-11-12T17:59:58Z)
    The application of topical heat for therapeutic purposes has become commonplace in America. It is used by professionals including physical therapists and physicians to treat their patients as well as by individuals within their home or at work. Using computer simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer through the outer tissue layers of the body, the process of heat transfer and temperature gradients within the tissues can be predicted. The objective of this study was to determine the temperature gradient of the muscle layer after applications of heat for less than one-half hour. Finite energy heat sources such as a hot water bottle as well as electric heat constant-temperature sources were evaluated. Applied temperatures were maintained at 50 C or less so not to irritate the skin surface. It was determined in all cases that the temperature of the muscle did not significantly increase within our time frame and actually began to cool after fifteen minutes with the hot water bottle case studies. On the other hand, the temperature of the epidermal-dermal layer, where nerve endings exist, remained at an elevated state of above 40 C for an extended period of time. It is inferred that a heat stimulated response of the neurons may be the cause of muscle relaxation and pain relief when a topical heat source is applied.
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    Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma Tumors
    Gonzalez, Ruth; Jones, Caroline; Meltzer, Sara; Miksic, Vonya; Patel, Payal (2004-11-12T17:47:52Z)
    This project analyzes the different parameters involved in the use of radiofrequency ablation in destruction of osteoid osteoma tumors. Osteoid osteomas occur most frequently in the long tubular bones, especially those in the lower extremities. Studies in destruction of these types of tumors are critical because they occur most commonly in people that are in the prime of their life, between the ages of seven and twenty-five. Previous treatments such as surgical tumor removal are painful, costly, and require longer healing times. Radiofrequency ablation promises to destroy the cancerous cells with minimal invasion and loss of healthy tissue at a lower cost and shorter recovery time. Using finite element analysis, we determined the optimal probe placement and size, heating voltage, and duration of treatment. To find these parameters our group utilized FIDAP and GAMBIT to model and simulate physiological conditions during the ablation. We used the energy equation to govern our system simulation and neglected the convective heat transfer because heat loss due to blood flow was negligible compared with that generated by the probe. The electric field generated was modeled as a species concentration by the Laplace equation. This field was the determining factor in heat generation and therefore tumor destruction. Our model was three-dimensional and the radius of the bone was determined so that we could assume a semi-infinite region, in which the outer boundary was held constant at body temperature. Our initial conditions assumed that the tissue was at average body temperature (37 degrees). Our findings suggest that having a two-probe system, each probe with a radius of .0001m, held at 11 mV for 60 seconds is the most efficient, less invasive method. Our study also indicated that the number of probes used was insignificant and that the specific heat, the tissue density, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity were of less importance to this process.
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    Optimization of Nicotine Patch Placement
    Barten, Garrett; Buhmann, Brendan; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Kaufman, Aaron; Ward, Briana (2004-11-12T17:36:15Z)
    Nicotine patches are currently used as a transdermal drug delivery method help to people trying to quit smoking. Currently, those trying to quit smoking are encouraged to place the nicotine patch on the outside of the upper arm. This study examined the effect of placing the nicotine patch in different locations on the body. This was accomplished by examining a cylindrical section of skin (epidermal and dermal layers) with a nicotine patch placed on top. Epidermal layers were varied depending on the location of the patch: abdomen, back, ear and buttocks. The results showed that the placement of the patch on the body is relevant and that the epidermal layer of the skin is the biggest barrier to transdermal drug delivery. For faster delivery directly to blood it is useful to use an area of the body with a thin epidermal layer, but for a more time consistent delivery to the blood, a thicker epidermal layer is preferable.
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    Laser Hair Removal
    Jolly, Aaron; Gupta, Sameer; Auerbach, Eric; Loaknauth, Nicholas; Drost, Laurens (2004-11-12T17:33:45Z)
    Laser hair removal, through a process known as selective photothermolysis, is a new trendy way to remove all that unwanted hair. Traditional methods such as waxing, tweezing, shaving and electrolysis each have their disadvantages. However, selective photothermolysis provides a simple and relatively painless way to achieve that hair free physique. From our knowledge of the procedure, we found that the most ideal way to model the hair follicle would be in an axis-symmetric model that divides the follicle and its surrounding tissue in half. The follicle was modeled at a depth of .0035m. Other parts of the hair are neglected as we concluded them to be insignificant. After calculating the laser?s power and inputting it as a flux over the surface of the follicle, we found very pleasing results that agree with our target values. These values include a threshold of 60 degrees C for the follicle in order to completely damage it and a threshold of 50 degrees C for the skin that would cause a mild pinching sensation because of the minute sizes we are dealing with. To obtain optimal results the following three laser parameters were varied: fluency, pulse duration and thermal relaxation time. After rigorous testing we found the optimum values as follows: pulse duration of 10ms, thermal relaxation time of 40ms and finally a fluency of 50 J/cm^2. We also found through sensitivity analysis that the specific heat and conductivity do not vary with temperature within a certain range. However, density proved to be very significant and varied drastically with temperature change within the follicle.
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    Development of Frostbite in the Fingers
    Chanler-Berat, Derek; Eckhardt, Ben; Reed, Kory; Morehead, Justin; Colosi, Lisa (2004-11-12T17:30:44Z)
    Physiologically, frostbite can only occur after a segment of tissue has been exposed to the elements for sufficient time such that the tissue temperature remains constant at 0 ?C and the solutions inside the tissue itself begin to form ice crystals and freeze. We will be exploring the time necessary for the development of each of the four degrees of frostbite as a function of the weather conditions , which will be represented by a reference temperature and a heat transfer coefficient (hc) based on the wind velocity. Additionally, we will also give consideration to two different insulation scenarios (bare finger versus gloved fingered) in order to determine the optimal type of insulation for different weather conditions. Our results, in the format of individual contour plots for selected temperatures and each of the insulation scenarios will provide insight into the relative danger of frostbite development and determine exactly what portions of the finger are most at risk.
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    The Mysteries of Firewalking Revealed
    Cargioli, Theresa; Gaites, Craig; Van Fleet, Geoff; Liem, Andre; Lyubchenko, Lev (2004-11-12T17:26:03Z)
    The act of firewalking was once thought of as a supernatural experience, shrouded in mystery and revered as a feat of courage and determination. Through the use of computer aided engineering and basic thermodynamics, firewalking can now be explained scientifically. We created a mesh in GAMBIT that included a representation of a human foot, a steam layer and the hot coals. The steam layer was created by the Leidenfrost effect, which we were testing the validity of. We determined, using FIDAP, that the combined effect of the steam layer?s poor conduction and the favorable thermal properties of both the foot and coal make it is possible for anyone to walk along a hot coal bed. After taking away the steam layer, we discovered that the steam layer played a vital role in protecting the foot. If it is not present, the foot will be burnt, as the temperature of the foot at the location of the nerve ending will surpass the pain threshold temperature of 318 Kelvin.
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    Bald is Beautiful, but is it Warm?
    Dy, Eric; Ross, Rachel; Tataria, Jigar; Lundeen, Anna (2004-11-12T17:24:06Z)
    The head is a major source of heat loss (60-80%), and therefore, if conditions are cold enough, not keeping the head properly insulated could lead to hypothermia. Because of this, we were interested in determining to what extent hair aided in insulating the head. Are bald people at an extreme disadvantage in winter weather even if they wear a hat? Using Gambit to create a mesh of the head and Fidap to run simulations on that mesh, we were able to model the heat loss through the head for a twelve-minute walk. Because we are concerned with our own well being as well as the well being of our fellow students, we modeled our scenario as if a person were walking from Carpenter Library to Riley Robb Hall in cold temperatures. In our analysis, we focused on the temperature at the surface of the skin to compare all of our results. We found that all individuals wearing a hat (regardless of their hair thickness or lack thereof) are at an equal position in cold weather (skin temperatures varied by only 0.08?C). However, without a hat, the thickness of hair causes the skin temperature to change drastically. Small amounts of hair (up to one cm) have very little effect on the overall temperature of the skin after twelve minutes in cold temperatures, but once hair reaches a thickness of two cm, the head becomes significantly insulated and skin temperatures are much higher.
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    Albuterol Uptake in Bronchioles
    Ho, Jeff; Putnam, Lauren; Savath, Vince; Scott, Bill (2004-11-12T17:21:56Z)
    Millions of people around the world suffer from asthma, which is characterized by breathing problems due to constricting bronchioles. While current remedies involve an effective inhaler drug, such as Albuterol, that relieves such symptoms, it still has not been determined exactly how often such a drug should be administered. This project uses GAMBIT and FIDAP to model the uptake of Albuterol in bronchioles in order to determine how often these inhalers should be used to maximize drug delivery and quickly minimize symptoms. A suitable model of drug flow through the bronchioles was developed and we were able to determine how much Albuterol was present in the bronchioles at any given time. It was determined that the concentration reaches steady state at about 0.004 seconds, and concentration at every point was directly proportional to the defined inlet concentration after that. However, since we were not able to find the therapeutic concentration, or the minimum amount of Albuterol needed to be effective in relieving symptoms, we could not quite figure out the proper time spacing between inhaled dosages.
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    Will You Warm My Hand?
    Ho, Calvin; Teh, Cheryl; Kou, Cynthia; Chan, Jason; Mok, Lawrence (2002-11-12T18:02:30Z)
    The objective of this design was to determine the effect of a commercial heating patch in a gloved hand on a cold day. Using Gambit and FIDAP, we meshed a gloved hand with results showing that this patch indeed warms the hand to normal body temperature in about 13 minutes. We also showed that varying blood perfusion rates do change the final temperature significantly. We also performed a sensitivity analysis with different types of leather gloves, but this only showed a change in temperature of about two degrees.