ItemPRO-DAIRY Annual Report 2021(2021-12)The Cornell CALS PRO-DAIRY program is proud of its vital role in leading education and applied research in support of New York’s dairy industry. The past several years have been very challenging for much of the industry, but we remain optimistic that our dairy industry will continue to be resilient and remain critical to New York’s economy, contributing to the strength of our country’s food system. I am confident in the people who comprise New York’s dairy industry and believe that their unique strengths and the strong partnerships within the industry are key to our future, and to the future of the families who make their livelihood by farming. The New York dairy industry has: • forward-looking farmers who have a proven-record of innovating and thriving amidst constant change. • an active and strong agribusiness sector. • a skilled team of Cornell Cooperative Extension specialists that surpasses any others in the country. • a talented PRO-DAIRY statewide specialist program that works in collaboration with other faculty programs at Cornell, the only Land-Grant University in the Ivy League with a clear mission to educate and support agricultural communities via programs that create new knowledge and new practices. The educational programming offered through PRO-DAIRY and the independent and collaborative applied research conducted by our specialists is top-notch. This report highlights the many ways that PRO-DAIRY serves as a valued resource for our dairy farm businesses. PRO-DAIRY hones the management skills of our dairy farm owners and managers, enhances the technical skills of dairy farm employees, and provides technical expertise to our state’s dairy farms in many important areas including farm business management, environmental stewardship, forage and crop production, cow health and management, dairy farmstead planning, dairy systems engineering, and through youth development programs that enhance knowledge of careers in dairy and attract the next generation. Additionally, our strong and productive partnerships with agribusiness and extension professionals helps all of us to grow and improve in support of the industry every day. With many thanks for your continued support and partnership. - Dr. Thomas R. Overton Director, PRO-DAIRY ItemResources for dealing with spring weather delaysLawrence, Joe (PRO-DAIRY, 2011)While the forecast still seems unsettled we are all hopeful that we are past the worst of the rain and can begin catch up on springs work. Here we have attempted to summarize a variety of relevant topics as you consider how to best tackle all the work that needs to take place is a condensed time frame. As always contact your local Extension office for more information on any of these topics. ItemPRO-DAIRY Annual ReportBerry, Julie (PRO-DAIRY, 2017)Enhancing New York's dairy industry through education and applied research since 1988. New York, and the next 30 years promises to bring even more change. All along the way, PRO-DAIRY has been there to develop the management skills of our farm owners and managers, help dairy farm businesses hone in on opportunities to improve their profitability and family livelihoods, provide technical expertise on many aspects of environmental stewardship, forage and crop production, cow health and management, facilities and dairy systems engineering, and help to attract our young people to opportunities to continue their education and find professional opportunities in the dairy industry. As described throughout the rest of this report, these are actualized through educational programs in both large and small group settings, applied research when needed either independently or in collaboration with faculty in Cornell CALS and beyond, and longstanding relationships with our dairy farms and allied industry professionals. Just as the New York dairy industry has evolved, so has PRO-DAIRY. From its initial focus on management education and curriculum development to the recruitment and deployment of statewide specialists with excellent technical expertise in key areas, the PRO-DAIRY team is committed to anticipating how the New York dairy industry will need to evolve to remain competitive in the global dairy economy and to helping our dairy farms and allied industry professionals achieve excellence. ItemKey opportunities to optimize 2018 crop production efficiencyLawrence, Joe; O'Neil, Kitty; Czymmek, Karl; Hunter, Mike (PRO-DAIRY, 2018-03)Most farms routinely concern themselves with minimizing expenses and optimizing profits from both the animal and cropping sides of the operation. To assure that cost control strategies don’t undermine productivity; i.e. cost more than they save, it is a good idea to avoid risky choices and to use sound, science-based information when planning management options. ItemLate summer alfalfa harvest? Take Labor Day off!Lawrence, Joe; Cherney, Jerry; Hunter, Mike (PRO-DAIRY, 2016-08)Alfalfa harvest schedule is an annual discussion as day length begins to shorten and with many areas facing short forage supplies the topic has even greater emphasis. The bottom line is that the underlying principles for risk to an alfalfa crop remain the same regardless of forage inventories; however, your tolerance for the risk involved certainly changes based on forage needs. ItemTime to check the progress of your first cuttingLawrence, Joe; Kuck, Ron; O'Neil, Kitty (PRO-DAIRY, 2016-05)Changes in harvest management on many farms have resulted in an evolution of first cutting going from a necessary evil that had to be dealt with in feeding programs, to the most desired crop on many dairies, and grasses have gained as much or more respect than alfalfa for their performance in lactating diets. ItemInventorying forageLawrence, Joe (PRO-DAIRY, 2016-07)With low forage yields, knowing what you have in inventory is critical to plan for how to best manage this feed to get through the coming year. It will affect decisions such as: • Do I have enough feed for the milking herd and young stock? • Do I need to look at fillers for the ration to stretch forage inventories? • Should I cull unproductive animals? • Do I have more youngstock than I need? ItemTogether we can protect our lakes, divided we all loseCzymmek, Karl; Ketterings, Quirine; Overton, Thomas (PRO-DAIRY, 2018-10)Every bit of land surface, dairy farm fields, crop, vegetable and fruit farm fields of all types, sizes and production systems, schoolyards and sport fields, lawns, abandoned lots, roads, parking lots, stream banks, and forests, contributes non-point source nutrient runoff to water in streams and lakes. Even without any farms, our watersheds shed nutrients. Some watersheds are mostly wooded or abandoned fields, others have a high proportion of cultivated land, but both types have had problems in recent years. And then some lakes, like Skaneateles, with mixed watershed use and with low nutrient levels (considered to be very clean), experienced harmful algal blooms (HABs) in 2017 and 2018. ItemResources for forage management in a drought situationLawrence, Joe (PRO-DAIRY, 2018)Short-term and long-term agronomic considerations for forage management during a drought. ItemWhen more is betterLawrence, Joe; Kuck, Ron (PRO-DAIRY, 2016-04)The approach of harvest is a good time to make preparations to ensure the season is as successful as possible. There are lots of rules and sayings regarding quantity: too much of a good thing, point of diminishing return, optimum range, and the list goes on. Often in crop production close attention is paid to these rules as data can show the point of diminishing return on fertilizer applications, seeding rates, and forage quality versus yield.