AEEP Data sets

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Datasets from the Agriculture, Energy & the Environment Program (AEEP).


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    Carbon (1s) NEXAFS spectra of biogeochemically relevant reference organic compounds
    Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes (2009-05-05T20:35:02Z)
    Natural organic matter (NOM) is a significant and active component in soils and sediments and plays an important role in carbon cycling. This data set provides a library of carbon (1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of biogeochemically relevant reference organic compounds. These spectral features can be used to derive structural information and determine peak assignment criteria to aid in the identification of complex organic carbon compounds in environmental samples. Comprehensive information on this research is presented in the following publication: Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, James Kinyangi, Biqing Liang, Karen Heymann, Lena Dathe, Kelly Hanley, Sue Wirick, and Chris Jacobsen. 2009 (In press: vol. 73). Carbon (1s) NEXAFS spectroscopy of biogeochemically relevant reference organic compounds. Soil Science Society of America Journal.
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    Water quality data for southern tributaries to Cayuga Lake (Tompkins County, NY): 1987-1989
    Bouldin, David (2007-11-12T14:18:31Z)
    In the period 1987 to 1989 a stream water sampling and analysis program for the southern Cayuga Lake basin was carried out as a part of the continuing analysis of central NY water quality (Manuscripts and Water Quality Data for Watersheds and Lakes in Central NY, 1972-2003, online:; Water quality data for Fall Creek (Tompkins County, NY) sampling sites: 1972-1995, online:; Water quality data for well, stream, and seep samples from the Harford Teaching and Research Farm (Cortland County, NY): 1974-1994, online:; Water quality data for Kashong Creek Watershed (Ontario County and Yates County, NY) sampling sites: 1977-1979, online: The samples were analyzed for suspended solids, NO3-N, and total dissolved phosphorus. The streams sampled were Fall Creek, Six Mile Creek, Cascadilla Creek and Inlet. Samples included all seasons and all flow regimes. On average, the NO3-N concentration in Fall Creek was 1.26 ppm, about twice that in the other streams. In the period 1972-1975, average NO3-N concentration was 0.97. The suspended solids in Six Mile Creek at Burns Road was higher than that in the other streams but at a location near its confluence with the lake (after passing though 2 impoundments), the concentration was comparable. Total dissolved P was lowest for inlet. In other locations (Six Mile Creek and Cascadilla) the TDP tended to increase after passage though City of Ithaca. A comparison of the suspended solids load in Fall Creek, 1973-1974 with 1987-1989 showed no important difference.
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    Water quality data for Kashong Creek Watershed (Ontario County and Yates County, NY) sampling sites: 1977-1979
    Bouldin, David (2007-10-29T18:53:27Z)
    In 1977 a sampling program was started for the Kashong watershed in conjunction with the ongoing sampling program for Fall Creek. It drains an area along the Ontario-Yates county boundary and empties into Seneca Lake. In contrast to Fall Creek, the land is more intensively farmed with much less dairy farming and more vegetable farming. About 20 samples were taken from Nov 1977 thru Mar 1979 from several sampling locations. Grab samples were taken during high and low flow events and probably included a fair sample of both high low flow events. Sampling locations and GPS locations are given in the attached location table. There was/is no current flow data for the watershed or its tributaries. However there is flow data for Flint Creek which is adjacent. It is USGS location no 04235250, daily discharge 1959-10-01 continuing through at least 2007-04-29. The flow data from Flint Creek was combined with the chemical analysis from Kashong. Regression of MRP (molybdate reactive phosphorus on centrifuged samples which is an estimate of inorganic P) on flow from Flint Creek was calculated. Next we estimated the frequency of occurrence of ranges of flow for the period 1959-2004 for the Flint and estimated how many days of a given flow range occurred during an average year. From this and the regression an estimated annual loading of MRP was calculated. The net result is 0.25 kg MRP per ha per year. Corresponding loading for fall Creek was 0.13 kg/ha/yr. Annual flow for Flint Creek is about 60 % of the annual flow for Fall Creek so the larger MRP loading means that the flow weighted MRP concentration was about twice that from Fall Creek. The total dissolved P (TDP) loading was also about twice that from Fall Creek; the ratio of MRP/TDP was much higher than in Fall Creek perhaps as a consequence of more manure in Fall Creek and hence more dissolved organic P.
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    Water quality data for well, stream, and seep samples from the Harford Teaching and Research Farm (Cortland County, NY): 1974-1994
    Bouldin, David (2007-10-17T20:23:16Z)
    Water quality data centered on the Animal Science Teaching and Research Center, Harford NY, 1974-1995 (referred to as T&R Center) In many areas of NY the level, well drained gravel outwash valleys are intensively used for a variety of human activities such as industry, housing and farming. The gravel outwash is usually deep, the water is easily accessed by high yielding wells and as a consequence the water in the aquifers is highly valued. Specific references to the northeastern U.S., central NY and the aquifer at the T&R Center are the following: Randall, Allan D., Deborah Snavelly, Thomas Holecek, and Roger Waller. 1988. Alternate sources of large seasonal ground-water supplies in the head waters of the Susquehanna River basin. U.S. Geological Survey. Water Resources Investigations Report 85-4127. USGS. Morrissey, Daniel J. Allan, Randall, and John Williams.1988. Upland runoff as a major source of recharge to stratified drift in the glaciated northeast in Randall, Allan D. ed.: Regional Aquifer systems of the United States. The Northeast glacial aquifers. AWRA monograph series no. 11. American Water Resources Association. 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 220. Bethesda MD 20814-2192. The permeability of the outwash is high and hence soluble contaminants such as NO3 are leached into aquifers along with the recharge water As a consequence the impact of human activities on water quality is a major issue. A mitigating factor is that the land usage in the surrounding upland areas is much less intense and high quality water from this part of the landscape drains downslope as surface water but once it reaches the valley floor seeps into the outwash and joins (mixes with?) the recharge water from the intensively used valley floor. In 1974 a water quality monitoring network was established on and near the Cornell Teaching and Research Center near Harford NY. This is an ideal location to study the effect of farming (mostly dairy) on the nitrate and phosphorus in streams and aquifers in a typical outwash valley with its surrounding upland areas. First, a major ground water divide runs through the center of the farm; part draining to Fall Creek and the other to the Susquehanna River. This means that we know where all of the water originates. Secondly, Cornell University owns the land except for some upland areas that so far (2007) are mostly wooded/abandoned agricultural land. This simplifies access, information on usage and in some cases control management. The objectives were a) to monitor behavior of aquifers in the gravel outwash and b) monitor water quality in the aquifers and surrounding uplands. In 1974 a cooperative program was developed between Cornell University and the USGS. In early 1974 Allan Randall of the USGS guided the location and instillation of 8 monitoring wells. Following the initial 8 wells, additional shallow wells were installed. Stream sampling locations were established. Seeps on the hillsides above the valley floor were also located. Well logs and methods of installation are documented in following: . Beginning in 1974 and continuing through 1994 samples of water in streams, monitoring wells and seeps on the upland slopes above the valley floor were analyzed for the same constituents using the same procedures as the Fall Creek samples reported elsewhere: . From Feb 28, 1979 through Jan 25, 1980 the USGS made a detailed study of the behavior of precipitation inputs and its flow though the landscape and aquifers at the T&R Center. During this period about 40% of the recharge to the aquifers was derived from precipitation on the area over the aquifers and 60% runoff from the uplands. Ground-water discharged down-valley as underflow about equaled recharge during this period. Details of the studies are reported in the 2 references listed above. A description of the farming operations on the center for the period 1972 through 1994 is summarized in the following: Wang, S. J. 1999. Impact of dairy farming on well water nitrate level and soil content of phosphorus and potassium. J Dairy Sci. 82:2164-2169. Briefly, in 1994 there were 400 milking cows producing exports in milk and meat of about 20 mt of N. Imports of N were 93 mt indicating a large excess of inputs relative to outputs. For comparison, a nitrogen balance for the adjacent Fall Creek watershed in 1974 can be found in an unpublished manuscript (ms10_nbl.doc, online: ). Nitrate N in 5 monitoring wells in the intensively farmed area which received most of the manure varied from 2 to 15 ppm NO3-N with very high variability among years and within years. Four streams drained watersheds that were without human habitations or farming operations. Two of these drained areas directly above the valley floor at the T&R Center which received the animal manure. The most important conclusions: a) concentrations of nitrate and phosphate are not different from those in the Catskills and Hubbard Brook which are also free from direct human influence and b) the loading of nitrate is about 15% of the input of wet deposition of inorganic N: the wooded areas are acting as a sink for the wet deposition of inorganic N. The results are summarized in an unpublished manuscript (Ms5_biog.doc, online ). Dissolved inorganic P in the original wells in 1975 averaged less than 10 ppb P. In my opinion the MRP for the deep wells is a reasonable estimate of P concent in surface water prior to 1790.
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    Water quality data for Fall Creek (Tompkins County, NY) sampling sites: 1972-1995
    Bouldin, David (2007-08-02T18:54:10Z)
    This data base is a compilation of water quality data collected in the period 1972 through 1995 from the Fall Creek watershed (including USGS site 04234000) and its subwatersheds. I am deeply grateful to the many research associates, graduate students, post docs and fellow faculty who helped collect and interpret the data. In 1970 Cornell University received a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to study runoff from land and its impact on water quality. A multidisciplinary team was developed and led by Professor Robert J Young. In 1975-6 this research was summarized in the following: Johnson, Arthur H. 1975. Phosphorus export from the Fall Creek watershed. Ph D thesis. Cornell University Library, Ithaca NY. Johnson, Arthur H., David R. Bouldin, Edward A. Goyette, and Anne Hedges. 1976. Phosphorus loss by stream transport from a rural watershed: Quantities, processes and sources. J. Environ Quality. 5:148-157. Johnson, Arthur H. David R. Bouldin, Edward Goyette and Anne Hedges. 1976. Nitrate dynamics in Fall Creek New York. J Environ Quality. 5:386-391. Johnson, Arthur H, David .R. Bouldin, Gary W. Hergert. 1975. Some observations concerning preparation and storage of stream samples for dissolved inorganic phosphorus. Water Resources Research. 11:559-562. Porter, Keith S. and Robert J. Young eds. 1976. Nitrogen and phosphorus. Food production Waste and the Environment. Ann Arbor Science Inc. Ann Arbor Mi. (ISBN 0-250-40111-8) Information Bulletin 127 (Bouldin, D.R. et al. Lakes and Phosphorus inputs. A Focus on Management. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Cornell University, Ithaca NY). Since the above project was finished, monitoring has continued at irregular intervals as financing became available. The archived files describe the results of analysis of over 3000 water samples, 1972- 1995, concerned with land runoff and the lakes in central NY. Major findings follow. Three P fractions were measured: MRP, TDP and TP. MRP was measured on centrifuged samples without treatment and is presumed to be mostly inorganic P in solution. TDP is measured on centrifuged samples after oxidation of organic forms of P and hence is total P in solution. TP is particulate P plus TDP. Usually MRP and TDP are considered the major forms used by algae. (Porter, 1976 pp 61-120, Information Bulletin 127; see also ms2_anal, ms1_intP.doc at The average TDP in about 1500 samples from Fall Creek was 0.026 mg per liter, loading was about 4400 Kg P or about 0.13 kg/ha/year . About ? was MRP. Total P was about 0.140 mg/liter. Approximate sources of TDP are as follows: 50% from inactive agriculture and forest, the other 50% attributed to human activities of which about half was from diffuse sources and half from point sources. MRP concentrations in runoff from 16 subwatersheds varied from 0.006 to 0.050 mg/l. The TDP in Cayuga Lake ranges from 0.005 to 0.020 mg per liter. The TDP load in Kashong Creek (a tributary to Seneca Lake) was 0.25 kg/ha/year (about twice that from Fall Creek). (Porter, 1976 pp 61-120, Information Bulletin 127). NO3 loading from Fall Creek is about 5.5 kg/ha /year; this is about 80% of the input of inorganic N in precipitation. This is a consequence of mosaic of sources varying widely in concentration. NO3 loading from 9 subwatersheds in Fall Creek varied from 1 to 7.7 kg/ha/year; no sample containing more than 10 ppm was found. (Porter 1976 pp 108-114). Streams draining wooded areas without human habitations or active agriculture have NO3 concentrations similar to those found in the Catskill and Hubbard Brook in NY and loadings on the order of 20 % (~1 kg/ha/year) of the inputs of inorganic N from precipitation and (see ms5_biog.doc; online at . There is presently no evidence of "forest saturation with N" in the Fall Creek watershed. There are unlikely to be more than a very few small streams in the Fall Creek watershed in which the concentration of NO3-N will exceed the 10 ppm public health standard. However some aquifers under heavily fertilized fields (such as those on the Harford T&R Center) may contain more than the public health standard. (ms9_NO3.doc, ms5_biog.doc; online at Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for Fall Creek did not change statistically during the period 1926-1996 as estimated by annual precipitation input minus stream outflow, indicating that land use changes were not important in influencing ET in this watershed (ms_15_ET.doc; online at Cl was used as tracer of effects of road salt. During late spring-summer-early fall when road salt was not applied, the flow weighted Cl concentration increased from about 11 ppm in 1972 to 19 ppm in 2003. The Cl concentration of samples taken during snow melt or winter rain following applications of road salt were as high as 60 to 70 ppm Estimated flow weighted concentration of Cl delivered to Cayuga Lake is 24 ppm (ms16_slt.doc; online at The most important sampling protocols are the following: Concentrations of constituents in stream water vary seasonally and/or with flow intensity. This means that a) timing of sampling must be carried out during all seasons and over all flow regimes, b) amounts of various substances such as N, P and sediment transported to lakes and reservoirs are the product of flow multiplied by concentration which means that flow measurements must be made at the same time as samples are taken for analytical determination. With respect to TDP, point sources will be most evident under low flow conditions while non- point sources will be most evident under high flow conditions. Loading of non point sources is thus very much dependent on the 10 % to 20% of the time when highest flow conditions occur. The most important conclusion I reached about watershed management is the following. Watershed management requires detailed knowledge about the cost of several management options per unit of decrease in loading/ concentration. Our experience was that the various human activities in sub watersheds were correlated with each other. This meant that statistical analysis of correlations between loading of N and P were useless in identifying the management options which would be most beneficial. This also means that commonly used procedures for validating models are useless in terms of developing management strategies (Ms12_mgm.doc; online at
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    Well Logs for Wells at the Cornell Department of Animal Science Harford Teaching and Research Center
    Bouldin, David (2007-08-02T14:14:38Z)
    Wells on the Harford Teaching and Research Center, College of Agriculture and life Sciences. Installation, measuring point (mp), depth and elevation of monitoring wells Several monitoring wells were installed under the supervision of the USGS (mostly by Allan Randall in the mid 1970s). Basically a casing was sunk, a 2 inch plastic pipe with a screen at the lower end was installed. The casing was gradually pulled partially and the annular ring between casing and plastic pipe was sealed with clay pellets. Some times a second pipe was installed above this seal, more of the casing was pulled, another seal of clay was installed and finally a heavy duty cast iron pipe was placed around the upper 2- 3 foot of the exposed plastic pipe as protection. Also a locked cap was placed on top of the protective pipe. The elevation of the top of the plastic pipes was determined relative to a known elevation; this elevation is known as the ?measuring point?.(called the mp). The depth to water is measured by lowering a sensor which rings when the water surface is reached and this depth relative to the mp is recorded as ?depth? in the date files. The elevation of the water surface is recorded as the difference between the mp and depth and this is referred to as ?elevation? in the data files. The depth of the wells is usually expressed as depth from the surface and hence is not as accurate as the mp. Usually the mp is 2.5 to 3 feet above the surface. Additional shallow wells were installed by CALS personnel as follows. A pit was dug by a back hoe, an 1.5 inch diameter rod was driven into botton of the pit to make a cavity for insertion of a 1 inch diameter plastic pipe fitted with about a 1 foot length of screen inserted into this hole, the void between the hole and sampling pipe was filled with sand and a clay seal placed above this and finally the hole was refilled with original material and packed back to original density. Well logs Attached are well logs of some of the wells. These logs are invaluable in analyzing the substrate and likely compartmentalizing the aquifers.
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    Distribution of Cs-137 in stream sediments and stream banks in the upper Susquehanna basin - 2006
    Nagle, Greg; Fahey, Tim; Woodbury, Peter (2007-06-26T13:57:14Z)
    This study expanded on our previous regional study of sediment sources in central New York by using 137Cs and other tracers to quantify the relative importance of sediment producing processes in the upper Susquehanna watershed. We sampled recently eroded sediments in a suite of watersheds in the upper Susquehanna basin of NY with contrasting historical and current land uses, and differing geomorphic and stream channel characteristics, focusing on likely high sediment-producing areas to identify subbasins with high levels of sediment contributed by bank erosion. By fingerprinting stream sediment sources, we hope to improve the basis for conceptualizing the process of erosion and sediment delivery and for devising and implementing effective sediment control programs. The most effective work with sediment tracers has involved the analysis of nuclear bomb-derived and natural fallout radionuclides that bond to sediment. Fallout radionuclides generally are retained in the upper few cm of soil; hence, they can be employed to analyze whether stream sediments have been eroded recently from surface sources or represent erosion from deeper sources like rills, gullies and streambanks. See the following for related work using similar methods: Nagle,G.N., T.J. Fahey, J.C. Ritchie, and P.B. Woodbury. 2007. Variations in sediment sources and yields in the Finger Lakes and Catskills regions of New York. Hydrological Processes 21(6): 828-838. Online: