BEE 4530 - 2013 Student Papers

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This is a collection of student research papers for Professor Ashim Datta's Biomed BEE 4530/Computer-aided Engineering course for 2013.


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Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
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    Modeling Concentration Profiles of Infliximab in Colon Wall to Ensure Efficacy of Drug-Eluting Biodegradable Stent in the Management of Crohn's Disease
    Dennin, Sean; Li, Xing; Yang, Danrui (2013-05-30)
    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bowel affecting more than 500,000 people in the US. Current delivery mechanisms for CD medications lack site and time specificity. Advances in biomaterials have led researchers to look into biodegradable drug-eluting stent as a potential vehicle to overcome the aforementioned shortcomings of current treatments. In order to determine if such a treatment is feasible, we present a model for drug diffusion from a biodegradable with COMSOL 4.3. This model tracks the diffusion of infliximab from the degradable stent into the colon wall with time, as well as the drug degradation in the colon wall. We first compared the diffusion profiles of models with and without stent degradation. We then obtained the average concentration levels in the colon wall and compared it to minimum therapeutic level in literature. We also determined the effect of stent composition on stent degradation velocities. Furthermore, we studied the effect of varying model input parameters on concentration profiles and output parameters. Finally, we validated our model using an analytical solution for drug delivery from a degradable polymer. Our results indicate that stent degradation decreases the average end concentration by 12% to 14%. The average end concentration obtained with the degrading model is 9.923e-7 mg/mm3, higher than the minimum therapeutic level, and convergence is reached after 5.3 days. Our model is applicable for a wide range of clinical situations, drug compound choices and polymer choices.
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    Optimizing diffusion time prior to probe-mediated microwave heating of injected nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment of tumors
    Enderlein, Colin; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; Lizarralde, Rafael; Rasmussen, Erik (2013-05-30)
    Localized tumor hyperthermia therapy is a treatment that involves heating cancerous tissue to temperatures that result in tumor cell necrosis, while preventing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Hyperthermia therapy treatments reported in the literature have shown that nanoparticles can be injected into a targeted tumor, allowing specific regions to undergo treatment and reducing the healthy tissue that is affected as well. Previous studies have shown that when the nanoparticles absorb specific wavelengths of radiation, they undergo resonance and emit heat. Thus, the targeted tumor can be heated through the actions of both tissue absorption, and heat emitted by the excited nanoparticles. This additional heat due to nanoparticles within a tumor can facilitate tumor heating over a given time-frame so as to prevent damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Our project aimed to investigate the efficacy of utilizing injectable ferromagnetic nanoparticles (with the properties of γ-hematite nanoparticles) to facilitate microwave heating of cancerous tissue. The first stage of our project was modeling the precise delivery and dispersion of a volume of nanoparticles in a targeted cancerous tissue. To do this, we built a 1D radially symmetric computational model in COMSOL to represent a tumor, and we computed the diffusion profile of the nanoparticles in this domain over the time directly after injection. Next, we built a 2D axisymmetric computational domain in COMSOL to model the heat treatment. This model included heating of the tumor tissue with a microwave probe, and then coupled this heating with heating due to the nanoparticle concentration in the tissue. Computing the heat and energy profiles for this heating model allowed us to then determine the optimal time after injection to begin the heat treatment to maximize cancer cell death, but minimize damage to healthy tissue. The optimal time was determined as the time when all cancerous tissue temperature had been raised above 43 °C, while the maximum surrounding healthy tissue temperature was still below 43 °C. In conjunction with finding the optimal heating interval, our goal was to also find the optimized injection nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle diffusion time, and microwave radiation power level. Computed temperature profiles that took into account heating due to the presence of nanoparticles within the tumor computational domain showed only a slightly larger proportion of the tumor domain reaching temperatures in excess of 43 °C than could be achieved when heating is due to radiation absorption by the tissue alone. Our conclusion is that, within the model, the nanoparticles are indeed absorbing microwave radiation, but they are not subsequently emitting as much heat as was expected. As they are absorbing radiation, they are blocking the passage of energy into the tissue areas directly surrounding the nanoparticles. Without the nanoparticles in the tumor domain, the microwave radiation can be absorbed entirely by the tissue, resulting in more desirable temperature profiles. Thus, our model as implemented does not demonstrate that injecting γ-hematite nanoparticles into a tumor facilitates probe-mediated microwave heating of said tumor. However, several changes could be made to our model to achieve more desirable results. For example, if the nanoparticles were injected so as to enclose the tumor targeted for destruction, then they would effectively create a barrier for microwave radiation to pass through, thus restricting the radiation heating primarily to the enclosed tumor region. Alternatively, the ferromagnetic nanoparticles could be magnetically tuned (using a varying magnetic field) during microwave radiation so that they do actually undergo resonance significantly, resulting in greater heat emission and desirable temperature profiles. Regardless, we did successfully model probe-mediated microwave radiation of a tumor for hyperthermia treatment using a complete electromagnetism module in COMSOL, something that has never been done before in this course. We found the optimum microwave probe power level and radiation time required to maximize tumor death while minimizing healthy tissue damage in our model. It follows that localized tumor hyperthermia therapy that uses a microwave-emitting probe for tumor destruction can be modeled and fine-tuned using COMSOL. With appropriate model modifications, it could be shown that ferromagnetic nanoparticles can be used to direct the microwave heating in the targeted region. Mass transfer and heat transfer models similar to the ones used in this project can be built with specific tumor geometries, tissue properties, and probe properties, and such models can be used to plan clinical applications of using probe-mediated microwave heating of cancerous tissue.
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    Modeling Flow Characteristics in Carotid Artery Bifurcation Afflicted with Atherosclerotic Plaques
    Braun, Alexandra; Ford, Stellie Justin; Shumakovich, Marina; Sonnenfeldt, Alden (2013-05-30)
    Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the hardening of arteries due to the buildup of fatty substances, dead monocytes, and oxidized LDL particles. In advanced cases, atherosclerotic plaques form within artery walls which results in arterial narrowing. In the worst case scenario, the plaque ruptures causing blood clotting and the complete blockage of blood flow. Heart attacks and strokes can result from this event, depending on the site of the blockage. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture in a carotid artery can be catastrophic because a blockage in a carotid will cut off a primary source of blood to the brain. The goal of this project was to model the blood flow in the bifurcation point of the carotid artery and use COMSOL particle tracing to deposit and add a plaque. Additionally, this project seeks to analyze the effects using aspirin, a blood thinner, as a commonly recommended treatment for patients suffering from atherosclerosis on blood pressure, blood flow, and shear rate in the bifurcation point of a carotid artery with a plaque. Aspirin reduces blood viscosity and facilitate flow, thereby potentially reducing some of the health risks associated with atherosclerosis. The following assumptions were made to allow for COMSOL implementation: the cardiac output is constant; the artery is rigid and non-compliant; all fluid properties are estimated; blood is a uniform Newtonian fluid; treatments and preventative measures affect only a single aspect of fluid flow; and blood follows laminar flow pattern. To interpret the model, it was important to consider the potential sources of error. Most of the error originated from the physical approximation from the assumptions listed above. Out of these assumptions, the rigid non-compliant artery simplification was likely the single largest source of error. Additionally, a small amount of error is introduced by COMSOL’s interpolation between discrete points. Despite the error, the results of this project were consistent with experimental data in literature. Particle tracing and velocity profiles demonstrated that a plaque would most likely form in the internal carotid. By iteratively repeating building the plaque using particle tracing as a guide, three representative geometries (34%, 50%, and 55% stenosis) were created to compare to the healthy artery. It was then determined that the reduction in viscosity due to aspirin decreased the shear rate at the walls causing less stress on the artery. Similar effects of blood pressure reduction and exercise increase were observed in this model. This project could be advanced in the future if the vessels could be modeled as compliant and the blood could be modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid.
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    Controlled Release of Exendin-4 from PLGA Micropheres with Convective Blood Flow
    Chen, Yuen Ching (Brenda); Kim, Justin; Lee, Jae Dong; Song, Sang Hoon (2013-05-30)
    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Primarily affecting those suffering from obesity, it comprises approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes. Currently, insulin and metformin injections are the most common methods of lowering blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetics. However, there are several disadvantages to these treatments, including the need for several injections a day and the risks associated with improper dosage or deviation from injection schedule. One proposed alternative treatment is to deliver microspheres embedded with exendin-4, an insulin secretagogue with glucoregulatory effects on the body, via a single subcutaneous injection. Bioerodible microspheres allow for a slow, sustained release of drug that will decrease the required frequency of administration and subsequently improve patient compliance. This paper documents the release of exendin-4 from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres into the bloodstream and the phenomena that influence its transport, namely the diffusion through the polymer matrix and bloodstream and the convective mass transfer effected by the flow of blood in the vessel. Because the motivation behind using microspheres as the preferred method of delivery is to eliminate the need for repeated administration, it is necessary to achieve a controlled, prolonged delivery of the desired dosage of exendin-4. The goal of this study is to find the optimal formulation properties for a steady release of exendin-4 into the bloodstream for an extended period of treatment. To this end, we developed a 2D-axisymmetric geometry in COMSOL to model a single microsphere in the human artery. A time varying boundary condition was implemented to simulate the changing radius of the microsphere, which steadily decreases due to surface degradation. A variety of parameters (e.g. PLGA composition, initial drug concentration, microsphere radius) were simulated using a series of parametric sweeps, and the effects of parametric changes were observed using sensitivity analysis. We found that the determination of the optimal diffusivity of exendin-4 in the PLGA microsphere depends on the desired balance between steadiness of release rate and total amount released after three weeks. Higher ratios of glycolic acid resulted in undesired bursts of drug release, whereas higher ratios of lactic acid did not result in appreciable rates of diffusion through the polymer matrix and thus did not achieve complete release by the end of the administration period. For any given composition of PLGA, we determined that an initial concentration of 1.505 mol/m3 (247 mg/mL) provided flux values within the reasonable range for effective delivery of exendin-4 over the desired period of administration. Our model does not provide conclusive evidence that the delivery of exendin-4 embedded in PLGA microspheres will achieve adequate therapeutic results. However, computational analysis of the concentration profiles attainable in the bloodstream provides a rough estimate of the formulation conditions required for controlled drug release; subsequent experiments will be conducted to evaluate its viability as a safer, less invasive alternative to periodic direct insulin injections for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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    Chemotherapuetic Treatment Using Controlled Drug Delivery of BCNU via Nanoparticles
    Brendel, Matt; Casey, Molly; Gilbert, Rachel; Spinella, Mel (2013-05-30)
    The most common type of brain tumor is the glioma and despite advances in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, there are no effective cures. This is due to the malignant glioma’s tendency to recur after treatment, with the recurrence being within a 4cm region from the edge at which it was surgically removed. However, local delivery mechanisms have provided a way for drug to reach the malignant tumors directly. One of these mechanisms is the use of the drug BCNU that is inserted into the cavity via dissolvable Gliadel wafers. These wafers have shown the ability to provide high drug concentrations to a localized area, but at a limited penetration distance of 1 to 2 cm. Consequently, our objective is to improve the design of the Gliadel wafer by encapsulating the BCNU in nanoparticles consisting of PSA with the goal that these nanoparticles will diffuse far enough from the wafers that the drug will reach a higher penetration distance. The drug delivery was modeled in COMSOL, using three governing equations: one to model the diffusion of the nanoparticles from the wafer into the tissue, one to model the diffusion of the drug out of the nanoparticles into the tissue, and another to model interstitial fluid flow in the brain. An axisymmetric cylindrical geometry was used to model the entire complex. The concentration of the BCNU out of the nanoparticles was modeled proportionally to the volume of the nanoparticle that was degraded. To accurately model drug delivery, interstitial fluid flow was taken into account due to its ability to cause a significant convective flux for the transport of macromolecules. The simulation was run for 12 days and a distance of 4cm from the removed tumor was reached above the therapeutic value of 5.394 x 10-12 mg/mm3. This was then compared to the method of BCNU delivery directly from the Gliadel wafers which are in the absence of nanoparticles. The results show that upon reaching the threshold value, the wafer containing nanoparticles diffused further into the brain tissue in comparison to the Gliadel wafer merely containing BCNU. Not only this, but the BCNU was also able to maintain at therapeutic levels for over 24 hours at the goal distance of 4cm from the tumor site. The ability of BCNU to reach a distance of 4cm from the tumor site supports the success of our design. This result strongly suggests that this method of drug delivery may treat the malignant glioma more successfully when compared to alternative cancer treatments. Design recommendations to more accurately model this process include adjustments to the geometry, nanoparticle diffusion and degradation, and assumptions made within the cavity region.
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    Optimization of Coventional pMDIs for a Better Salutamol Delivery System
    Luu, Ha (Natalie); Lin, Kimberly; Contreras, Danya; Curley, Stephanie (2013-05-30)
    The most commonly prescribed method of treatment for asthma today is the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). However, many patients fail to use it correctly, resulting in the inefficient administration of the drug. There are two main methods to maximize the efficacy of an inhaler: 1) increasing the concentration of the drug per dose; and 2) optimizing drug particle deposition in the lungs by minimizing deposition in the upper airway. Previous studies have shown that doubling the inhaled dose is minimally effective, and it also increases the risk of experiencing side effects. Thus, minimizing particle deposition in the upper airway is the more viable approach. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is necessary for determining the ideal parameters that will minimize the drug loss during species transfer and maximize the drug’s effectiveness. The goal of this study is to develop a model that simulates the particle trajectory and deposition of salbutamol, an anti-asthma drug (Drug Information Online, 2013), through the oral cavity and laryngeal-trachea regions of the upper respiratory tract. Besides modeling the system, topics of optimal flow rate, initial velocity of drug particles at the mouth inlet, and aerosol drug size are also discussed. The COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3 simulation software was used to solve the governing equations employed in our simulation. Turbulent fluid flow from inhalation was modeled with 2-dimensional Navier Stokes fluid flow equations, and the Lagrangian Particle Tracking method was used to describe the distribution of the drug. Fraction of particle deposition in the upper airway tract was determined for a range of breathing flow rates, inlet particle velocities, insertion angles, and particle sizes to find optimal values. Deposition of salbutamol at different inhaler insertion angles was also measured. Results showed that particle deposition is minimized with particle diameters of 1-10µm and flow rates of 30-60 L/min. A subtle dependence on particle velocity was noted for particles of 10-20µm in size; there was a small increase in deposition as particle velocity increased for a given flow rate and particle size. For a particle diameter of 30µm, as much as 100% of all particles deposited in the upper airway tract for the higher flow rates of 50, 60, and 75 L/min. For particles that were <10µm, the percentage of particles that deposited in the respiratory tract did not change appreciably with changing particle inlet velocity across all flow rates tested, consistently showing ~3.5% particle deposition. For medium-sized particles that were between 10µm and 30µm in diameter, the amount of drug reaching the lungs can be maximized by choosing a lower flow rate, <50 L/min, and lower spray velocity, <7.3 m/s. For salbutamol in particular, the amount of deposition at different spray cone angles did not show a significant trend. The implications of our findings will lead future designs of pMDI to focus on obtaining the optimal combination of parameters for drug size, breathing flow rate, and particle inlet velocity. Our observations on the dependence of particle deposition on drug size will allow extending the application of our model to other drugs of different sizes and potentially lead to modifying inhalers accordingly. For future studies, our analysis can be extended to consider the deposition location for the same range of flow rates, spray velocities, and drug sizes, and spray cone angle. In addition, the effect of different mouth geometries on deposition location can be explored.
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    Modeling and Optimizing High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Columns for the Separation of Biopharmaceuticals
    Huang, Alex; Huang, Dantong; Yuan, Jie (2013-05-30)
    One of the most critical steps in the production of pharmaceuticals is the separation of the desired compound from reaction byproducts and environmental contaminants. Among the most sensitive of these methods is High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), in which an initial mixture of compounds is forced by high pressure fluid flow through a column packed with a porous solid medium. Size and charge interactions with the solid phase cause the compounds to elute at different times from the column. The performance of an HPLC column is highly dependent on properties such as the length, ambient temperature, inlet pressure, and solid medium porosity. The ideal parameters are conventionally determined by purchasing and physically testing a series of columns, which can be prohibitive in cost, time, and materials. Thus there currently exists a pressing need for computer models to simulate the separation of two or more compounds in order to expedite the onerous process of physical optimization. This study sought to simulate the physical phenomena that underlie the elution process in an HPLC column, and optimize the conditions such that species separation and purity are maximized. The computing software COMSOL was used to model the involved physics, which comprised the flow of a mobile phase through a porous matrix, modeled by the Navier-Stokes Brinkman equation; the diffusion and dispersion of two solutes in the matrix, modeled by the general mass transfer equation; and the effect of external heating on the materials’ behavior, modeled by the general heat equation. The geometry of the HPLC column consisted of an axisymmetric two-dimensional tube filled with a uniformly distributed porous matrix. This model column was evaluated by simulating the separation of creatine and creatinine, two closely-related molecules involved in muscle tissue energetics. Once the model was tailored to a high degree of accuracy in comparison with experimental data, the column and species parameters were optimized. The optimal geometry for the separation of creatine and creatinine by HPLC, was a column of diameter 1.05 mm and length 78.4 mm, with a packed bed of spherical particles 5 µm in diameter. The optimal column temperature for this particular situation was found to be lower, at 15℃, as this slightly increases peak resolution but also elution time. Though concentration plots derived from this model corroborated experimental elution absorbance plots with relatively high fidelity, lingering issues remain, including the unexpectedly small influence of temperature on elution characteristics. Future models may seek to correct this calculation error by including a less steep concentration gradient at the inlet at initial time points. Additionally, variations in column heating were found to have a very small effect on the diffusion of the solute bands, so the external temperature was excluded from the optimization process. The successful implementation of this model indicates that HPLC chromatography can be feasibly represented by computer modeling, and more specific models can reduce the time and material costs of extensive physical testing.
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    Dude, Where's My Stitch? Strength Analysis of Absorbable Sutures via COMSOL
    Dong, Owen; Kaufman, Jonathan; Kumar, Supriya; Mari, Liana (2013-05-30)
    A common method in aiding postoperative tissue healing is the use of a suture, which functions by holding tissues together. The ideal suture is able to lose strength at the same rate that the tissue gains strength. Absorbable sutures have been studied to provide that strength for the tissue, while at the same time reducing tissue trauma caused by the gradual absorption of the biocompatible material. Because of its excellent fiber-forming ability and biodegradability, polyglycolic acid (PGA) has been investigated for developing resorbable sutures [1]. A computational model of the decomposition and mechanical analysis of this suture provided insight into how the mechanical strength of the suture changes as it deteriorates. In this novel study, we aimed to create a model via COMSOL that would simulate the degradation of a dissolvable suture and analyze the sutures changing mechanical properties during degradation. Diffusion of water into the suture occurs so quickly that we realized that bulk erosion, not surface erosion, was the main means of degradation. We created a model that simulated the effect of the natural decomposition of the PGA suture within the body via bulk erosion. By decreasing the volume and applying a uniaxial load to the model, we related the effective Young’s modulus to the original Young’s modulus of the material as the suture degraded. Suture decomposition rate was determined from scientific literature and previous experiments. The suture’s effective elastic modulus decayed with time as the suture dissolved and was absorbed by the body. Knowing the rate at which the elastic modulus decays will allow us to predict the point in time at which the suture no longer holds the tissues together. Findings on the change of material properties of the suture over time are a valuable first step for determining the initial elastic modulus of sutures required for certain tissue repair.
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    Optimization of Oral Insulin Drug Delivery via Inhalation
    Chin, Karen; Mulchan, Nicholas; Hong, Stephen; Yoon, Stephen (2013-05-30)
    Drug inhalation is quickly emerging in the field of drug delivery techniques, providing localized treatment for various types of lung disorders. To expand oral drug delivery, this project will focus on inhaled insulin therapy to provide a systemic treatment that will reduce the detrimental effects of diabetes. Previous research has shown that inhaled insulin is more efficient and preferable to patients compared to the commonly used insulin injection therapy. However, there are several problems associated with drug inhalation techniques, including the impaction of drug against the natural right angle geometry of the pharynx, which results in decreased deposition in the lungs. The goals of this project include the optimization of insulin drug particle diameter size, the optimization of particle density, and optimization of the peak inhalation rate of drug to reduce impaction against the pharynx and to maximize deposition in the lungs. Optimization of the aerosol insulin was done using a laminar flow COMSOL model. To simplify the model, a two dimensional, cross-section of the mouth and trachea was used as the biological system to measure the effectiveness of the delivery scheme. This model was used to test particles with density values ranging from 10 g/m3 to 800 g/m3, as well as particles with diameters ranging from 1 μm to 17.5 μm. In addition, particles were tested with peak inhalation rates ranging from 15 L/min to 90 L/min and inhaler insertion angles ranging from -10° to 10°. Using every permutation of particle density, particle diameter, peak inhalation rate, and insertion angle we sought to find the most optimal delivery system for deposition at the bottom of the trachea. Particle deposition was further analyzed by varying inhalation rate and particle parameters in a 2D turbulent flow model and a 3D laminar flow model. For the 2D laminar flow model, particle deposition was found to be the most sensitive to inhalation rate compared to the other experimental parameters. Results indicated that high inhalation rates (45-60 L/min), particles with low density (100-400 kg/m3) and low diameter (1-7.5 μm) resulted in increased particle deposition, which agrees with literature. For the velocity profile we obtained, the peak normalized velocity values of 1.53 for the 15 L/min inhalation rate, 1.37 for the 30 L/min inhalation rate, and 1.27 for the 90 L/min inhalation rate agree with the values recorded in literature. For the 2D turbulent flow model, varying inhalation rate, particle density and diameter appeared to have no significant effect on particle deposition. The turbulent model displayed particle depositions that were an order of magnitude lower than those of the 2D laminar model, which we believe to be due to turbulent dispersion effects. For the 3D laminar flow model, flow velocity did not vary in the z direction, which implies that the 2D laminar model is an appropriate representation of flow velocity Our model demonstrates the effects of changing various drug particle parameters on particle deposition. We recommend the use of particles with low density and low diameter along with high inhalation rates in order to reduce impaction in the oral cavity and increase deposition in the lungs. Since particle deposition was most sensitive to inhalation rate, when formulating oral drug treatment particles, the specific inhalation rate that is used should be carefully considered.
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    Tendinitis Relief: Three Dimensional Modeling of Cold Therapy for the Treatment of Supraspinatus Tendinitis
    Prucha-Mitchell, Kelsey; Huffstater, Tessa; Fitch, Jeffrey; McCann, Charles (2013-05-30)
    Shoulder bursitis and supraspinatus tendinitis are common conditions that result from the inflammation of the supraspinatus tendon. These cause pressure to be placed more heavily on the anterior bursa sac, along with the surrounding bones and nerves. A common treatment is conductive cooling on the affected region, generally in the form of a cold pack. However, if the cold pack is left on for too short of a time period, the cooling may not reach the tendon. The tendinitis would not be adequately treated in this case, as the inflammation could not be reduced if the tendon is not cooled to a temperature close to that of the rest of the body. If it is left on for too long, the patient may be subject to significant pain and the surrounding healthy tissue may be permanently damaged. Therefore, our goal is to identify the ideal treatment time for treating supraspinatus tendon inflammation. We created a three-dimensional model of the shoulder using COMSOL, with components integrated from Autodesk™ Computer aided design software and Google Sketch-Up. The implementation of our model into COMSOL allowed us to simulate the effects of this type of cold therapy on a human shoulder. A number of major parameter simplifications were required for adequate implementation into our model. Such simplifications included the grouping of the skin and muscle components, approximation of the humerus to a cylinder and a sphere, and grouping of the bursa sac and supraspinatus tendon into one domain because the two structures were too close together to be included in the model individually. We researched relevant literature to obtain property values for the bone and tissue components of our model. We used our best judgment to approximate the property values for parts of the geometry that were simplified, such as the tendon, muscle, and skin. In order to counteract any inaccuracy that could have resulted from imprecise averaged values, we performed sensitivity analysis to determine how tendon temperature varied with changes in the various material properties. This analysis supported our approximations. To further validate our model, we compared our results with previous research. The results of their study provided us with a guideline as to how much the muscle region should cool in a certain time period. Within that time period, our muscle tissue cooled by the expected amount, which validated our model. We decided that a 3-dimensional analysis of the supraspinatus tendon was necessary because the shoulder is asymmetric, so a 2-dimensional model would not be capable of capturing the necessary complexity. We determined that the standard suggested practice of treating an injury for a maximum of 20 minutes was not applicable for injuries that are as deep as the supraspinatus tendon. In this amount of time, the tendon’s temperature decreased by 3.05 Kelvin, when it needed to decrease by 7 K to be measured as successful cooling. We identified the ideal cold treatment time to be 96 minutes, using COMSOL to determine the point at which the supraspinatus tendon cooled within 1 K of body temperature. Further analysis indicated that the suprascapular nerve would not reach the threshold for cold pain of 288 K. However, other areas closer to the surface would reach temperatures well below this threshold. The cooling of the nerves running through this region could lead to significant pain. Literature shows that cooling for more than an hour could lead to permanent tissue damage, so 96 minutes of continuous cold treatment is not recommended. While our assumptions limit the clinical significance of this study, our results indicated that the use of cold therapy for only 20 minutes is ineffective because it does not reduce the temperature of the tendon enough to reduce inflammation. Cold treatment would likely be improved by the addition of anti-inflammatory drugs, in an attempt to combat the inflammation in two ways. We would recommend that further studies utilize unique heat transfer properties for the structures present in the shoulder instead of grouping them as one. This would bring the study closer to a clinically significant stage. In addition, further analysis of the likelihood of the pain response could be included by the addition of nerves to the model. Our model could also be used to test other cold or heat therapy technologies and their probable pervasiveness in the human shoulder, specifically the glenoid and sub-acromial regions.