Other Cases: Europe

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    Local government and social movements in Bologna since 1945
    Parker, Simon (University of Cambridge, 1992-03)
    Traces the emergence of redistributive and participatory policy from 1946 through the 1980s. Main features include neighborhood councils and services like municipal pharmacies, and management with local economic development under a “Leninist Keynesian” strategy. The Bolognese communist party, having established leadership during the WW2 resistance period, forged a social democratic policy alliance with other parties, establishing a municipal version of what they saw as a model for European nations.
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    The London Industrial Strategy
    Greater London Council (1985)
    Economic strategy and analysis for the 32 borough Greater London Council. Includes an extended overview of the London economy and agencies responsible for implementation and further plans. The authors note the general transition of industry toward a flexible production network, then detail a sector approach with discussion of 24 sectors in turn. The London Industrial Strategy is notable in its deviation from both the generally Keynesian framework of the postwar period, and also from the monetarist turn under the Thatcher government beginning in 1979. Facing the abolition of the GLC, the authors hoped to leave a path for others following.
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    London and the Greater London Council: Restructuring the Capital of Capital
    Murray, Robin (Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, 1985)
    "Brief (9 pp.) description of the GLC experience creating the London Industrial Strategy as the staff discovered an industrial structure changing from domination by large firms to more of a network of small firms. "". . . an edited version of a lecture given at the Development Planning Unit, University College, London on 13 February 1984""
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    ‘A Red-Green Lighthouse’ The city of Trondheim in Norwegian politics
    Braathen, Einar (2009)
    In 2003 a new majority in Trondheim’s City Hall started to vigorously implement a radical programme to reclaim the public sector, re-municipalize service provision and expand the level and quality of social services. At the same time, the city eliminated the budget deficit inherited from the previous regime.
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    Democratic Socialism and the Local State: the Case of the Greater London Council
    Egan, Daniel (2005-09)
    Describes the radical labor faction’s period of control (1981-1986) that ended when the Thatcher government’s opposition finally resulted in Council abolition. Includes a careful analysis of legal and political constraints on Council policy, as well as areas of Council discretion prior to abolition.