Culture and Egocentric Perceptions of Fairness in Conflict and Negotiation
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Gelfand, Michele J.; Higgins, Marianne; Nishii, Lisa Hisae; Raver, Jana L.; Dominquez, Alexandria; Murakami, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Toyama, Midori
In this article, the authors advanced a cultural view of judgment biases in conflict and negotiation. The authors predicted that disputants’ self-serving biases of fairness would be more prevalent in individualistic cultures, such as the United States, in which the self is served by focusing on one’s positive attributes to “stand out” and be better than others, yet would be attenuated in collectivistic cultures, such as Japan, where the self is served by focusing on one’s negative characteristics to “blend in” (S. J. Heine, D. R. Lehman, H. R. Markus, & S. Kitayama, 1999). Four studies that used different methodologies (free recall, scenarios, and a laboratory experiment) supported this notion. Implications for the science and practice of negotiation are discussed.
This paper was the winner of the Best Empirical Paper Published in 2002 in Conflict & Negotiation Award, International Association of Conflict Management.
fairness; judgement bias; conflict; negotiation
Required Publisher Statement: © American Psychological Association. Final version published as: Gelfand, M. J., Higgins, M., Nishii, L. H., Raver, J. L., Dominguez, A., Murakami, F., … Toyama, M. (2002). Culture and egocentric perceptions of fairness in conflict and negotiation [Electronic version]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 833-845. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.87.5.833 Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.