Time Pressure and the Development of Integrative Agreements in Bilateral Negotiations
Carnevale, Peter J. D.; Lawler, Edward J.
A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure on the process and outcome of integrative bargaining. Time pressure was operationalized in terms of the amount of time available to negotiate. As hypothesized, high time pressure produced nonagreements and poor negotiation outcomes only when negotiators adopted an individualistic orientation; when negotiators adopted a cooperative orientation, they achieved high outcomes regardless of time pressure. In combination with an individualistic orientation, time pressure produced greater competitiveness, firm negotiator aspirations, and reduced information exchange. In combination with a cooperative orientation, time pressure produced greater cooperativeness and lower negotiator aspirations. The main findings were seen as consistent with Pruitt’s strategic-choice model of negotiation.
bilateral negotiations; integrative bargaining; time pressure; individualistic orientation; cooperative orientation
Required Publisher Statement: © SAGE. Final version published as: Carnevale, P. J. D., & Lawler, E. J. (1986). Time pressure and the development of integrative agreements in bilateral negotiations [Electronic version]. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 30(4), 636-659. doi: 10.1177/0022002786030004003 Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.