APL and the Grzegorczyk Hierarchy
We show in this paper that the set of "traditional" APL 1-liners (using arithmetic functions only) compute precisely the set of functions in the class E4 of Grzegorczyk hierarchy (the class immediately above the elementary functions). We also show that if we extend the set of 1-liners to include either the "execute" operator, or 1 line programs with gotos, then any partial recursive function can be computed.
computer science; technical report
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