National Character and Tipping Customs: The Needs for Achievement, Affiliation and Power as Predictors of the Prevalence of Tipping
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Tipping is a widespread custom in which service patrons give sums of money above and beyond the contracted prices of those services to the workers who have served them. This study found that, tipping is more prevalent in countries characterized by strong needs for achievement and power than in countries where these needs are weaker. One simple and plausible explanation for these results is that achievement- and power-oriented consumers support tipping more than do others because they value its roles as an incentive/reward more than do others. Hospitality managers should keep this possibility in mind when considering, or implementing, counter-normative tipping policies at their properties.
tipping customs; national character; achievement motives; power motives
Required Publisher Statement: © Elsevier. Final version published as: Lynn, M. (2000). National character and tipping customs: The needs for achievement, affiliation and power as predictors of the prevalence of tipping. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 19(2), 205-210. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.