Are Robots Perceived as Good Decision-Makers: A Study Investigating Trust and Preference of Robotic Referees over Humans in Soccer
The world is becoming increasingly automated, with more tasks and decisions handled by robots and computers. Today, robots have a presence in decision-making fields like sports, healthcare, and education, but the technology is young and may not be trusted enough to replace a human completely. This study focuses on using this technology in sports, in particular soccer, where increasing popularity has placed increased pressure on referees to make accurate decisions. To improve the accuracy of calls, robotic referees with AI and sensors could be introduced within the next decade. The appearance of the robotic agent and accuracy of call impact how much fans trust them compared to humans. Our online study with 222 participants finds that there is a positive correlation between trust and preference for AI, mechanical, humanoid, and human linesmen. However, despite the rapid rise of technology, participants still prefer human linesmen over the robotic linesmen. The appearance of the robotic linesmen create a psychological barrier to people’s readiness to accept the technology, while people’s familiarity with human linesmen and expectations of emotions they want to experience from watching soccer- tension and unpredictability of “human error”- serve as a value barrier to change.
Preference; Human-Robot Interaction; trust; decision-making; Design; Technology
Green, Keith E.
Design and Environmental Analysis
M.A., Design and Environmental Analysis
Master of Arts
dissertation or thesis