ESSAYS ON EDUCATION AND LABOR MARKETS IN LATIN AMERICA
Jaume, David Jose
This dissertation studies the labor market effect of different educational policies in Latin America. The first two chapters are focused on a market level analysis. The first chapter develops a framework to evaluate the labor market effects of different types of educational expansions in four labor market outcomes: (1) the occupational structure of employment; (2) the assignment of workers with different level of education to occupations; (3) the wage level for each educational group; and (4) the wage gaps between educational groups. I evaluate three policy experiments consistent on increasing secondary schooling, increasing higher education, and increasing both. In the second Chapter, I apply the framework to study the case of Brazil, a country that underwent a major educational expansion during the period 1995-2014. I provide some new stylized facts for Brazil on the inter-linkages between changes in education, occupations, and wages over the period of 1995-2014— changes in outcomes (1)-(4). I found that: (a) the occupational structure of employment improved, but that improvement was very small when compared to the extension of the educational expansion; (b) the conditional occupational attainment declined for each educational group—primary or less, secondary, and university; (c) and average wages increased but not for all educational groups since wages of primary educated workers increased while wages of more educated workers declined; (d) there were large reductions in inequality as measured by educational wage gaps. Then, I show that the model’s predictions for the Brazilian educational expansion are qualitatively consistent with the patterns observed in the data. I further demonstrate that, after calibrating the model, the educational expansion in Brazil was of utmost importance for generating the observed quantitative changes in the labor market. In the last chapter, I moved from a market level to an individual level analysis to evaluate the effect of a negative educational shock on workers’ lifetime earnings. In particular, I examine how school disruptions caused by teacher strikes in Argentina affect students’ long-run outcomes by exploiting cross-cohort variation in the prevalence of teacher strikes within and across provinces in Argentina in a difference-in-difference framework. I find robust evidence that teacher strikes worsen the future labor market outcomes of students when they are between 30 and 40 years old.
labor markets; Economics; Educational Expansion; Occupations; Teacher Strikes; Wages; Latin America
Fields, Gary S.
Kanbur, Ravi; Prowse, Victoria; Caunedo, Julieta D.
Ph. D., Economics
Doctor of Philosophy
dissertation or thesis