Structure-Reactivity Relationships of Lithium Amides: LiHMDS-Mediated Enolizations of Hindered Aryl Ketones and LiTMP-Mediated Ortholithiations
Enolizations of highly substituted acyclic ketones used in the syntheses of tetrasubstituted olefin-based anticancer agents are described. Lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)-mediated enolizations are moderately Z-selective in neat tetrahydrofuran (THF) and E-selective in 2.0 M THF/hexane. The results of NMR spectroscopy show the resulting enolates to be statistically distributed ensembles of E,E-, E,Z-, and Z,Z-enolate dimers with subunits that reflect the selectivities. The results of rate studies trace the preference for E and Z isomers to tetrasolvated- and pentasolvated-monomer-based transition structures, respectively. Enolization using LiHMDS in N,N-dimethylethylamine or triethylamine in toluene affords a 65:1 mixture of LiHMDS−lithium enolate mixed dimers containing E and Z isomers, respectively. Spectroscopic studies show that condition-dependent complexation of ketone to LiHMDS occurs in trialkylamine/toluene. Rate data attribute the high selectivity exclusively to monosolvated-dimer-based transition structures. Rate and mechanistic studies of ortholithiations by lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine focus on four arenes: 1,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene, 1,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene, 1,3-dimethoxybenzene, and 4,4-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2-oxazoline. Metalations occur via substrate-dependent combinations of monosolvated monomer, disolvated monomer, and tetrasolvated dimer (triple ions). Density functional theory computational studies augment the experimental data. We discuss the challenges presented by shifting dimer–monomer proportions in determining the observable reaction orders and our mathematical treatment of such shifting in reactant structure.
Collum, David B.
Coates, Geoffrey; Fors, Brett P.
Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Ph. D., Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Doctor of Philosophy
dissertation or thesis