Energy security, poverty and sovereignty in mountain communities of Tajikistan
This dissertation research examines the vulnerabilities of energy systems in Tajikistan at the national scale, assesses the energy needs and resources of rural mountain communities at the local scale, and recommends energy solutions to improve the security of energy systems and livelihood opportunities of local communities. It advances the concepts of energy security, energy poverty and energy sovereignty from national and community perspectives. Using mixed-method research design and employing survey research, and in-depth interviews, in addition to literature review and secondary data analysis, this research identifies the energy needs at the household level, and sheds light onto national energy system vulnerabilities. Based on the analysis of available data, this research highlights key vulnerabilities of the energy system including insufficient energy production capacity, unreliable and expensive energy imports, dwindling power infrastructure causing technical and economic losses, inadequate transparency in the power sector, lack of regional cooperation in energy and water resource sharing, and inadequate financial resources to address all of the above. This research finds that energy poverty reflects the current condition of access to energy services at the level of the community and household in rural villages of the southeastern part of Khatlon region, Tajikistan. Rural communities continue to rely on solid biomass (wood, straw, animal dung) to meet their thermal energy needs, and many households are not connected to the electrical grid. For those connected to the grid, access to electricity is neither reliable nor affordable. This research recommends a potential intermediate solution to local energy access that entails proliferation of small-scale technologies such as solar home systems, micro-hydro units, biogas digesters, improved cookstoves, residential wind turbines and thermal insulation of homes. These technologies may be optimal to rural areas as they are smartly deployed, easily maintained and configurable to needs, plus cost-effective and environmentally sustainable in the long-term. Businesses, together with governments and civil society organizations can take advantage of technologies to lead the transition from energy poverty to security. Ultimately, the policymakers, energy planners and providers should prioritize the role of households and their communities in addressing their energy challenges.
Energy; Central Asia; energy policy; energy poverty; energy security; energy sovereignty; Tajikistan; Natural resource management; Public policy
Kassam, Karim-Aly Saleh
K., Benjamin Sovacool; Allred, Shorna Broussard; Morreale, Stephen J.
PHD of Natural Resources
Doctor of Philosophy
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dissertation or thesis
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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