Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use
Proceedings of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) International Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment
22-25 September 2008
R.W. Howarth and S. Bringezu, editors. 2009
The "rapid assessment" approach is one used by many other SCOPE projects in the past, and was designed here to synthesize the state of knowledge as of the end of 2008. We believe our report has captured the complexity of the biofuels-environment debate in an objective and informative way. Each of the chapters went through rigorous, usually anonymous, review by two or more peers and each was carefully revised before being accepted for publication in this volume. The individual chapters offer some differences in perspective, yet we have strived to offer consistent information. We fervently hope that the report will contribute to the development of better policies for using biofuels in a responsible and environmentally sustainable manner. More information on the International SCOPE Biofuels Project can be found on the project site.
A printed copy of this work can be purchased here.
The International SCOPE Biofuels Project gratefully acknowledges support from the United Nations Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the David & Lucile Packard Foundation, UNEP, the Cornell Center for a Sustainable Future, the Biogeochemistry & Biocomplexity Initiative at Cornell University, an endowment provided to Cornell University by David R. Atkinson, and the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy.
- Executive Summary: Rapid Assessment on Biofuels and the Environment: Overview and Key Findings
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Biofuels and the Environment in the 21st Century
- Chapter 2: Government Policies & Drivers of World Biofuels, Sustainability Criteria, Certification Proposals & Their Limitations
- Chapter 3: Biomass Conversion to Fuels and Electric Power
- Chapter 4: Crops for Biofuel: Current Status and Prospects for the Future
- Chapter 5: Energy Balance & Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biofuels from a Life Cycle Perspective
- Chapter 6: Greenhouse Gas Implications of Land Use Change and Land Conversion to Biofuel Crops
- Chapter 7: Biodiversity Consequences of Increased Biofuel Production
- Chapter 8: Biofuels and Water
- Chapter 9: Impact of Ethanol Production on Nutrient Cycles and Water Quality: The United States and Brazil as Case Studies
- Chapter 10: Air Quality Issues Associated with Biofuel Production and Use
- Chapter 11: Biofuels: Economic and Public Policy Considerations
- Chapter 12: Social and Distributional Impacts of Biofuel Production
- Chapter 13: Future Feedstocks for Biofuel Systems
- Chapter 14: Quantifying the Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Production: Knowns and Unknowns
- Chapter 15: Biofuels in Developing Countries
- Chapter 16: What are the Final Land Limits?
- Chapter 17: Mitigation Strategies: Biofuel Development Considerations to Minimize Impacts on the Socio-Environmental System
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