Developmental Immunotoxicity, Perinatal Programming, and Noncommunicable Diseases: Focus on Human Studies
Dietert, Rodney R.
Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) is a term given to encompass the environmentally induced disruption of normal immune development resulting in adverse outcomes. A myriad of chemical, physical, and psychological factors can all contribute to DIT. As a core component of the developmental origins of adult disease, DIT is interlinked with three important concepts surrounding health risks across a lifetime: (1) the Barker Hypothesis, which connects prenatal development to later-life diseases, (2) the hygiene hypothesis, which connects newborns and infants to risk of later-life diseases and, (3) fetal programming and epigenetic alterations, which may exert effects both in later life and across future generations.This review of DIT considers: (1) the history and context of DIT research, (2) the fundamental features of DIT, (3) the emerging role of DIT in risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and (4) the range of risk factors that have been investigated through human research.The emphasis on the human DIT-related literature is significant since most prior reviews ofDIT have largely focused on animal research and considerations of specific categories of risk factors (e.g., heavy metals). Risk factors considered in this review include air pollution, aluminum, antibiotics, arsenic, bisphenol A, ethanol, lead (Pb),maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke, paracetamol (acetaminophen), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyfluorinated compounds.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
non-communicable diseases; developmental immunotoxicity; human studies; disease risk; chemicals; drugs; maternal stressors; fetal programming; epigenetics; epidemiology; Caesarian delivery; formula feeding; breastfeeding; hygiene hypothesis; Barker hypothesis; endocrine disrupting chemicals; critical windows of vulnerability; age-related susceptibility; gender differences