Ultra-Low-Power Uwb Impulse Radio Design: Architecture, Circuits, And Applications
Recent advances in home healthcare, environmental sensing, and low power computing have created a need for wireless communication at very low power for low data rate applications. Due to higher energy/bit requirements at lower data -rate, achieving power levels low enough to enable long battery lifetime (~10 years) or power-harvesting supplies have not been possible with traditional approaches. Dutycycled radios have often been proposed in literature as a solution for such applications due to their ability to shut off the static power consumption at low data rates. While earlier radio nodes for such systems have been proposed based on a type of sleepwake scheduling, such implementations are still power hungry due to large synchronization uncertainty (~1[MICRO SIGN]s). In this dissertation, we utilize impulsive signaling and a pulse-coupled oscillator (PCO) based synchronization scheme to facilitate a globally synchronized wireless network. We have modeled this network over a widely varying parameter space and found that it is capable of reducing system cost as well as providing scalability in wireless sensor networks. Based on this scheme, we implemented an FCC compliant, 3-5GHz, timemultiplexed, dual-band UWB impulse radio transceiver, measured to consume only 20[MICRO SIGN]W when the nodes are synchronized for peer-peer communication. At the system level the design was measured to consume 86[MICRO SIGN]W of power, while facilitating multi- hop communication. Simple pulse-shaping circuitry ensures spectral efficiency, FCC compliance and ~30dB band-isolation. Similarly, the band-switchable, ~2ns turn-on receiver implements a non-coherent pulse detection scheme that facilitates low power consumption with -87dBm sensitivity at 100Kbps. Once synchronized the nodes exchange information while duty-cycling, and can use any type of high level network protocols utilized in packet based communication. For robust network performance, a localized synchronization detection scheme based on relative timing and statistics of the PCO firing and the timing pulses ("sync") is reported. No active hand-shaking is required for nodes to detect synchronization. A self-reinforcement scheme also helps maintain synchronization even in the presence of miss-detections. Finally we discuss unique ways to exploit properties of pulse coupled oscillator networks to realize novel low power event communication, prioritization, localization and immediate neighborhood validation for low power wireless sensor applications.
Low Power; Ultra Low Power; uwb; Impulse; Impulse Radio; Wireless; Sensor Networks; Event detection; pco; Firefly; broadcast
Apsel, Alyssa B.
Molnar, Alyosha Christopher; Lipson, Michal
Ph. D., Electrical Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
dissertation or thesis