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Using Formative Research To Design Infant And Young Child Feeding Interventions
Interventions using technology-based supplements to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have only had a moderate effect on growth. The amount of formative research conducted prior to these interventions has been minimal suggesting that unknown contextual aspects may have affected the impact of these technology-based supplements. This dissertation explores the use of formative research to improve the design of IYCF interventions using technology-based supplements. In CHAPTER TWO I examined the underlying contextual determinants of complementary feeding in two food insecure settings to identify appropriate intervention strategies. In CHAPTER THREE I tested the feasibility of one of the strategies developed in CHAPTER TWO by comparing how much infant feeding can be improved without and with the use of a lipid-based nutrient supplement. In CHAPTER FOUR I compared the information gained about the acceptability of a processed complementary food (PCF) from a short, one-day taste and a longer, 2-week home trial. The results of CHAPTER TWO indicate that other determinants besides income poverty can help determine whether a food-based supplement is required and that nutrition education programs should be grounded in the larger indigenous ways of knowing about food and infant care. In CHAPTER THREE the results show that nutrient intakes can be significantly improved with barrier-specific counseling messages via a transformative learning experience, but ultimately some type of supplement is necessary to ensure adequate iron and zinc intakes when there is a lack of animal source foods. In CHAPTER FOUR, the results confirmed that a longer home-based trial can identify pitfalls that could affect a longer intervention that were not found in a short, one-day taste test. In CHAPTER FIVE I reviewed available formative research models and made recommendations to improve the feasibility of conducting such research in an era where more technology-based supplements are available. I conclude that formative research can be approached iteratively such that multiple layers of an intervention could be explored. I recommend that formative research for an intervention should be better documented to recognize the contextual decisions of intervention design and education interventions should begin to incorporate contemporary adult learning theory into their design.
dissertation or thesis