Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and chemistry?
Zwetsloot, Marie J.; Lehmann, Johannes; Solomon, Dawit
BACKGROUND: Pyrolysis of slaughterhouse waste could promote more sustainable phosphorus (P) usage through the development of alternative P fertilizers. This study investigated how pyrolysis temperature (220, 350, 550 and 750°C), rendering before pyrolysis, and wood or corn biomass additions affect P chemistry in bone char, plant availability, and its potential as P fertilizer. RESULTS: Linear combination fitting of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra demonstrated that higher pyrolysis temperatures decreased the fit with organic P references, but increased the fit with a hydroxyapatite (HA) reference, used as indicator of high calcium phosphate (CaP) crystallinity. The fit to the HA reference increased approximately from 0 to 69% in bone with meat residue and from 20 to 95% in rendered bone. Biomass additions to the bone with meat residue reduced the fit to the HA reference by 83% for wood and 95% for corn, and additions to rendered bone by 37% for wood. No detectable aromatic P forms were generated by pyrolysis. High CaP crystallinity was correlated with low water-extractable P, but high formic acid-extractable P indicative of high plant availability. Bone char supplied available P which was only 24% lower than Triple Superphosphate fertilizer and two- to five-fold higher than rock phosphate. CONCLUSION: Pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions can be used to design phosphorus fertilizer characteristics of bone char through changing CaP crystallinity that optimize P availability to plants.
We are grateful for the support by the Towards Sustainability Foundation, CARE-Cornell Impact through Innovations Fund, McKnight Foundation, Bradfield Award, Fulbright and Huygens Talent Scholarship Program. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. We acknowledge the support by Syed Khalid running beam line X19A.
biochar; bone char; phosphorus; pyrolysis; XANES-spectroscopy
Previously Published As
Zwetsloot, M.J., Lehmann, J., Solomon, D., 2015. Recycling slaughterhouse waste into fertilizer: how do pyrolysis temperature and biomass additions affect phosphorus availability and chemistry? Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95, 281–288. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6716
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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