Historical Monographs, papers and research

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This is a collection of Historical Monographs, papers and research from the Faculty and Staff of Cornell University.

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    Realităţi demografice în oraşul Arad în secolul al XVIII-lea
    Ghita, Eugen (2011)
    The study aims to carry out an analysis from demographic perspective for the city of Arad during the years 1767-1768. It is based on two documents that contain mainly statistical data with which it is possible to emphasize aspects related to some demographical behaviour in Arad. Information about the deceased, newborns and marriages registered, about the share of different ethnicities and confessions help us to outline the image of Arad, in which, during the XVIIIth century has been seen a clear process of modernization and demographic growth.
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    Two Cases of Divorce in the Town of Arad in the Eighteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (2011)
    The two documents, which are the subject of the present study, made to share property in the event of divorce, help to form an image on various aspects of daily life, poorly known from other sources: household size, land property, earnings in marriage furniture, tools, animals, prices, food, secular and religious involvement of the private life etc. In addition to legal information, both inventories, which stood at the base of documents on which the property was to be divided, reveal another perspective on social history of Arad in the late eighteenth century.
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    Population, Ethnicity and Confession in the County of Arad in the Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (2011)
    At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Arad County contained only 25 localities in the north of Mureş River, and in the middle of the century, the administrative unit was extended by incorporating two districts of Zarand County, which would then be abolished. We made calculations on population from Arad County in its extended administrative form, but also including in these calculations the Serbian militaries’ families, who, at least until the abolition of the Tisa-Mureş military border, had an important share in these areas. The growth of Arad County population throughout the period was 13.8 times, from about 15000 inhabitants around the year 1700 to 207039 inhabitants in 1828. From this point of view, Arad is different from all the counties from Transylvania and Partium. Only Sătmar County has grown quite large, 7.6 times during 1720-1828, while Bihor County increased 5.4 times and Cluj County 3.3 times in the same range.
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    Aspecte privind organizarea administrativ-teritorială şi instituţională a comitatului Arad în secolul al XVIII-lea (Some aspects of the administrative-territorial and institutional organization of Arad County in the eighteenth century)
    Ghita, Eugen (2011)
    The article offers a brief overview of the administrative-territorial organization and reorganization in the former county of Arad. Old medieval boundaries have known significant changes after the installation of Habsburg rule. Political, social and military reasons determined the imperial authorities to make several reorganizations of the area. Institutions were designed to ensure proper functioning of the county, but also contributed to the upgrade of the administrative structures on the Enlightenment spirit.
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    The Consequences of the 1771 Floods in the City of Arad
    Ghita, Eugen (Editura Gutenberg, 2010)
    Among „the bad years” of the 18th century that affected the city of Arad, 14 of it were because of the floods, the most severe overflows taking place on July 1771. The devastations were considerable and due especially to the fact that the city wasn’t protected and the bad weather lasted full days, the waters retracting only after about 7-8 days. The authorities were interested in stocktaking the effects of the overflow and as a cause they organized charts in which were totalized the losses suffered by the inhabitants of the city in the summer of 1771. The data from these charts permit us to realize the immensity of the disaster: 252 completely destroyed houses, 9 dead, about 8500 florins losses due to the overflowed and devastated gardens, the inundation of the agrarian fields from the proximity of the city, 200 animals drowned, 88 hives destroyed by the waters etc. Even though the authorities realized along the time works meant to regularize the flow of the river Mureş, and the urban policy thought about the danger of the floods, the city of Arad kept to be endangered by the river in the decades that followed until the waters overflowed again in: 1772, 1774, 1779, 1780, 1783, 1785, 1793 and 1799.
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    Two Cases of Divorce in the Town of Arad in the Eighteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (Editura Gutenberg, 2010)
    The two documents which are the subject of the present study, made to share property in the event of divorce, help to form an image on various aspects of daily life, poorly known from other sources: household size, land property, earnings in marriage furniture, tools, animals, prices, food, secular and religious involvement of the private life etc. In addition to legal information, both inventories, which stood at the base of documents on which the property was to be divided, reveal another perspective on social history of Arad in the late eighteenth century.
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    The Rural Habitat in Arad County During the Eighteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (Editura Gutenberg, 2010)
    The present study aims to investigate in terms of quantitative and qualitative perspectives the rural habitat in the county of Arad during the eighteenth century. The dynamics of settlements, their evolution over the century, changes occurred in the types of environments were conducted in conjunction with the policy of the new imperial authorities and in accordance with the populationist policy of the Habsburg Empire. The rural habitat which predominated in the Arad County suffered changes of great importance not only just as a consequence of the official systematization policy, but also as a result of the constant demographical increase which occurred in the eighteenth century.
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    Serbs - Immigrants and Emigrants in Arad County in Eighteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (Editura Gutenberg, 2010)
    After the peace of Karlovitz, the Mureş River became the official border between the two great empires: the Habsburg and the Ottoman Empire. In this context was organized the military border Tisa-Mureş, and the first called to defend the region were the Serbs, recognized for their military skills. The authorities created the first militarized localities in the county of Arad simultaneously with the first arrival of Serb immigrants in this region. Their presence in the city of Arad and other settlements located on the right bank of the Mureş River changed the ethnic proportions in these areas. The situation modified after Banat was conquered by Austrians and after the abolishment of the Tisa-Mureş military border. Most Serbs emigrated to the south of Mureş River and even in Russia, their share in the city and county of Arad decreasing significantly after the mid eighteenth century.
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    Legal Aspects of Marital Relations in the City of Arad in the Eighteenth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (Presa universitară clujeană, 2010-05)
    This study proposed, first, to carry out, based on archive documents, an incursion as regards matrimonial relationships of XVIIIth century with all legal, economic and social connotations involved. The marriage contracts studied fall into a typology more closely of what was happening in the same period in Western Europe than in South Eastern Europe. This is because such acts have emerged within the former county of Arad in the first half of the century after the establishment of Habsburg domination and after the German colonists were brought into the area. Besides the juridical problems regarding the contractual liabilities of the spouses, the status of the children, some problems related to wealth and dowry, I tried to mark out some aspects regarding the everyday life of Arad’s inhabitants in the XVIIIth century.
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    Sources of historical demography of XVIIIth century in the diocese of Arad
    Ghita, Eugen (2005)
    This article proposes to pay attention on the sources of historical demography in the old eparchy of Arad. At the end of XVIIth century, the Ottoman domination in the zone have been filled with the domination of Habsburgs and the Arad city became a significant orthodox Episcopal centre subordinated in religious plan to the metropolitan of Karlovitz. For the reconstitution and the knowledge of the demographical aspects into old counties Arad and Zarand, we can use many documents, which are preserved in the Departmental Direction of National Archive of Arad. Various censuses, tax conscriptions, wills and especially parochial registers of the marital status are sources of first category. With the methods used by Michel Fleury and Louis Henry this sources are essential to know the behaviours demographic for the various ethnos groups, as well majority Rumanian as the population German, Hungarian, Serb or Jewish which have lived in these places 300 years ago.
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    Population and habitat on the feudal domain Şiria at the beginning of the XVIth century
    Ghita, Eugen (2007)
    The study „Population and habitat on the feudal domain Şiria at the beginning of the XVIth century” is based on a statistical document developed in 1525. We have many and very important information on the people’s one of the largest feudal domain in Transylvania in the middle Ages. The 8152 inhabitants, where nearly 90% for them is represented by serfs, live in 121 villages scattered over an area large enough in the old county of Zarand. The predominantly landform is mountain. The majority of the 121 villages, 76% more accurate, have up to 80`s inhabitants, so they are relative small villages. Yet some localities are also somewhat larger – market towns - which have between 184 and 460 inhabitants. Finally, we can see that the old type of habitat is preserved up to the present day with few changes and 70 villages from them exist in our days on the territory of the counties Arad and Hunedoara.
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    Urban and Semi Urban Habitat in Former County of Arad in XVIIIth Century
    Ghita, Eugen (2008)
    This study submits to our attention some qualitative and quantitative aspects related to urban and semi urban habitat from the former Arad County in the eighteenth century. If in 1715 there were 6 market towns, at the end of the century were already 15. Based on the conscriptions, urbariums and census, I have tried to detect the evolution of market towns during the entire eighteenth century. Reform policy of the Habsburg absolutism has determined even an economic and demographic increase in the market towns of Arad County. Between those 15 market towns of the county existing in 1787 only Arad had obvious urban characteristics. Here was concentrated 6.15% of the county population. By comparison with other counties from Transylvania and Hungary, I have pursued to dignify and quantify different aspects of the urbanization degree in the Arad County registered in the eighteenth century. The development of market towns in Arad County has had the same evolution with those of Central and Eastern Europe, because the agrarian character of these localities was predominant. The evolution towards urbanization was evident along the eighteenth century both in terms of population growth and a great social mobility and also in light of the economic and municipal development. The transformations in the direction of modernization registered during the eighteenth century were the basement of the future process of urbanization of Arad County in the century that has followed.
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    Some aspects regarding matrimonial relations in the city of Arad in the XVIIIth century
    Ghita, Eugen (2009)
    This study proposed, first, to carry out, based on archive documents, an incursion as regards matrimonial relationships of XVIIIth century with all legal, economic and social connotations involved. The marriage contracts studied fall into a typology more closely of what was happening in the same period in Western Europe than in South Eastern Europe. This is because such acts have emerged within the former county of Arad in the first half of the century after the establishment of Habsburg domination and after the German colonists were brought into the area. Besides the juridical problems regarding the contractual liabilities of the spouses, the status of the children, some problems related to wealth and dowry, I tried to mark out some aspects regarding the everyday life of Arad’s inhabitants in the XVIIIth century.
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    Where Are We?; Where We May Be Going; What Will We Do There
    Block, David (2008-05-19T15:35:54Z)
    The gradual digitization of research library collections has now accelerated to the extent that librarians and booksellers need to discuss how they will service the needs of Latin American scholars. This paper lays out the general contours of change in research libraries and offers some response scenarios for a region whose information is still primarily paper-based as libraries devote increasing resources to digital materials.
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    Mission Culture on the Upper Amazon: Native Tradition, Jesuit Enterprise and Secular Policy in Moxos, 1660-1880
    Block, David (University of Nebraska Press, 1994)
    The native peoples of the Moxos region of modern Bolivia began a cultural transformation with their contact by Jesuit missionaries in the mid 17th century. The amalgamation of autocthonous and European modes formed a particular "mission culture" that endured until the Amazonian rubber boom reached Moxos at the end of the 19th century.