Cornell International Affairs Review - Volume 16, Number 1 (Fall 2022)

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    Cornell International Affairs Review: Fall 2022
    Cornell International Affairs Review, Editorial Board (Cornell University Library, 2023-02-28)
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    Latin American and Caribbean Participation in China's Belt and Road Initiative
    Duckworth, Elaine (Cornell University Library, 2023-02-28)
    In March 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a multinational infrastructure project in which China finances initiatives in partner countries targeted towards advancing five key cooperation priorities: policy coordination, facilities connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and people-to-people bond. In 2017, Panama became the frst country in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to join the BRI. Since then, 21 LAC countries have joined the initiative by signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with China. Despite the rising popularity of the program in the region, twelve countries remain non-participants. This paper aims to employ a qualitative approach to analyze the participatory variation within Latin America and the Caribbean, asking if countries with increasing levels of trade interdependence with China are more likely to have signed a BRI MOU. It also considers potential diplomatic and political factors, such as a country’s recognition of Taiwan, that may preclude a country from joining the initiative. This paper is centered around a comparative case study of four countries with different levels of trade interdependence and BRI participation statuses: Chile, El Salvador, Colombia, and Guatemala. Within the scope of this case study, the results show that countries with upward trends across trade interdependence indices are more likely to participate in the BRI.
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    The Rebel Iron Fist: Reframing Violence as a Condition for Rebel Governance
    Pourmalek, Panthea (Cornell University Library, 2023-02-28)
    Conventional and tired characterizations of civil wars invoke images of endless chaos and relentless violence perpetuated by armed groups. In reality, civil wars are defined by unique forms of wartime social and political order, and are anything but chaotic.1 This study focuses on ‘rebel governance’ as a specific rebel-civilian sociopolitical relationship in which rebel groups participate in the administration of civilian affairs. Using disaggregated data on rebel governance in 122 civil wars, I examine the relationship between the character of rebel governance used by rebel groups and the use of violence against civilians. Contrary to existing characterizations of rebel governance, the results of the large-N analysis show rebel governance, particularly the provision of social services, to be positively related to conflict violence. Through further qualitative analysis of governance in the case of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), I point to the necessary role of violence in the administration of rebel governance and rebel group capacity as two preliminary explanations for the observed relationship.
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    The Relationship between Coup-proofing and Counterinsurgency: Insights from Iran
    Roush, Jack (Cornell University Library, 2023-02-28)
    Theories of coup-proofing and counterinsurgency have received increased attention in recent years. However, minimal research has been conducted to determine if a causal relationship exists between the two theories. Therefore, this dissertation endeavors to broaden both theories by drawing insights into how coup-proofing measures impact strategic approaches and operational efficacy in counterinsurgency campaigns. To accomplish this task, this dissertation analyzes the case of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its counterinsurgency campaign in the province of Sistan va Baluchestan. This case tests the hypothesis that coup proofing has caused Iran to adopt a coercive-repressive approach to counterinsurgency, and diminished its operational performance. Following a case study analysis and conclusions regarding the hypothesis, I further outline these findings and discuss their applicability to other cases. I also place my research within the context of broader coup-proofing and counterinsurgency theory, linking it to ongoing debates in each field. Though the conclusions drawn are in the context of Iran, the case provides a jumping-of point for further research.