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Core Values: Bringing them to life
Putnam, Barry (PRO-DAIRY, 2024-06)
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Core Values: What they are and how to establish them
Putnam, Barry (PRO-DAIRY, 2024-06)
Core Values. We all have them. They are guiding principles for how you live your life. Today, some dairies are defining and redefining their Core Values, and asking employees to participate in the process. These dairies will use Core Values as their compass to carry out daily activities and make decisions.
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Data from: Circumscribing laser cuts attenuate seizure propagation in a mouse model of focal epilepsy
Lieberman, Seth; Rivera, Daniel A.; Morton, Ryan; Hingorani, Amrit; Southard, Teresa L.; Johnson, Lynn; Reukauf, Jennifer; Radwanski, Ryan E.; Zhao, Mingrui; Nishimura, Nozomi; Bracko, Oliver; Schwartz, Theodore, H.; Schaffer, Chris B. (2024-06-10)
In partial onset epilepsy, seizures arise focally in the brain and often propagate. Patients frequently become refractory to medical management, leaving neurosurgery, which can cause neurologic deficits, as a primary treatment. In the cortex, focal seizures spread through horizontal connections in layers II/Ill, suggesting that severing these connections can block seizures while preserving function. Focal neocortical epilepsy was induced in mice, sub-surface cuts were created surrounding the seizure focus using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses, and electrophysiological recordings were acquired at multiple locations for 3-12 months is induced. Cuts reduced seizure frequency in most animals by 87%, and only 5% of remaining seizures propagated to the distant electrodes, compared to 80% in control animals. These cuts produced a modest decrease in cortical blood flow that recovered and left a 20-um wide scar with minimal collateral damage. When placed over the motor cortex, cuts did not cause notable deficits in a skilled reaching task, suggesting they hold promise as a novel neurosurgical approach for intractable focal cortical epilepsy.
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Supplementary figures for Reproductive physiological outcomes of dairy cows with different genomic merit for fertility: biomarkers, uterine health, endocrine status, estrus features, and response to ovarian synchronization
Sitko, Emily; Laplacette, Ana; Duhatschek, Douglas; Rial, Clara; Perez, Martin M.; Tompkins, Sheridan; Kerwin, Allison L.; Giordano, Julio O. (Journal Dairy Science, 2024-06-07)
Our overarching objective was to characterize associations between genomic merit for fertility and the reproductive function of lactating dairy cows in a prospective cohort study. In this manuscript, we present results of the association between genomic merit for fertility and indicators of metabolic status and inflammation, uterine health, endocrine status, response to synchronization, and estrous behavior in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows entering their first (n = 82) or second (n = 37) lactation were enrolled at parturition and fitted with an ear-attached sensor for automated detection of estrus. Ear-notch tissue samples were collected from all cows and submitted for genotyping using a commercial genomic test. Based on genomic predicted transmitting ability values for daughter pregnancy rate (gDPR) cows were classified into a high (Hi-Fert; gDPR >0.6; n = 36), medium (Med-Fert; gDPR -1.3 to 0.6; n = 45), and low (Lo-Fert; gDPR <-1.3; n = 38) group. At 33 to 39 d in milk (DIM), cohorts of cows were enrolled in the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of estrus and ovulation. Body weights, body condition scores (BCS), and uterine health measurements (i.e., vaginal discharge, uterine cytology) were collected from parturition to 60 DIM and milk yield was collected through 90 DIM. Blood samples were collected weekly through 3 wk of lactation for analysis of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, and haptoglobin plasma concentrations. Body weight, BCS, NEFA, BHB, and Haptoglobin were not associated with fertility groups from 1 to 9 wk after parturition. The proportion of cows classified as having endometritis at 33 to 36 DIM tended to be greater for the Lo-Fert than the Hi-Fert group. The proportion of cows that resumed cyclicity did not differ at any timepoint evaluated and there were no significant associations between probability or duration and intensity of estrus with fertility group. Cows of superior genetic merit for fertility were more likely to ovulate, have a functional CL, have greater circulating P4, and have larger ovulatory size than cows of inferior fertility potential at key time points during synchronization of estrus and ovulation. Despite observing numerical differences with potential performance consequences for the proportion of cows that responded to synchronization of ovulation and were both cyclic and responded to the Ovsynch portion of the synchronization protocol, we did not observe significant differences between fertility groups. Although not consistent and modest in magnitude, the collective physiological and endocrine differences observed suggested that cows of superior genetic fertility potential might have improved reproductive performance, at least in part, because of modestly improved endocrine status, uterine health, and ability to ovulate
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The ovarian function and endocrine phenotypes of lactating dairy cows during the estrous cycle were associated with genomic-enhanced predictions of fertility potential
Sitko, Emily; Laplacette, Ana; Rial, Clara; Duhatschek, Douglas; Giordano, Julio O.; Perez, Martin M.; Tompkins, Sheridan; Kerwin, Allison L.; Wiltbank, Milo C.; Domingues, Rafael R. (Journal of Dairy Science, 2024-04-29)
The objectives of this prospective cohort study were to characterize associations among genomic merit for fertility with ovarian and endocrine function and the estrous behavior of dairy cows during an entire, non-hormonally manipulated estrous cycle. Lactating Holstein cows entering their first (n = 82) or second (n = 37) lactation had ear-notch tissue samples collected for genotyping using a commercial genomic test. Based on genomic predicted transmitting ability values for daughter pregnancy rate (gDPR) cows were classified into a high (Hi-Fert; gDPR >0.6 n = 36), medium (Med-Fert; gDPR -1.3 to 0.6 n = 45), and low fertility (Lo-Fert; gDPR <-1.3 n = 38) group. At 33 to 39 DIM, cohorts of cows were enrolled in the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for synchronization of ovulation and initiation of a new estrous cycle. Thereafter, the ovarian function and endocrine dynamics were monitored daily until the next ovulation by transrectal ultrasonography and concentrations of progesterone (P4), estradiol, and FSH. Estrous behavior was monitored with an ear-attached automated estrus detection system that recorded physical activity and rumination time. Overall, we observed an association between fertility group and the ovarian and hormonal phenotype of dairy cows during the estrous cycle. Cows in the Hi-Fert group had greater circulating concentrations of P4 than cows in the Lo-Fert group from day 4 to 13 after induction of ovulation and from day -3 to -1 before the onset of luteolysis. The frequency of atypical estrous cycles was 3-fold greater for cows in the Lo-Fert than the Hi-Fert group. We also observed other modest associations between genomic merit for fertility with the follicular dynamics and estrous behavior. There were several associations between milk yield and parity with ovarian, endocrine, and estrous behavior phenotypes as cows with greater milk yield and in the second lactation were more likely to have unfavorable phenotypes. These results demonstrate that differences in reproductive performance between cows of different genomic merit for fertility classified based on gDPR may be partially associated with circulating concentrations of P4, the incidence of atypical phenotypes during the estrous cycles, and to a lesser extent the follicular wave dynamics. The observed physiological and endocrine phenotypes might help explain part of the differences in reproductive performance between cows of superior and inferior genomic merit for fertility.