Diffuse mycobacterial enteritis in a Red-Lored Amazon (Amazona autumnalis)

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Mycobacteria in an endemic acid-fast saprophyte in which the most common isolates are from food, water and soil. Mycobacterium avian intracellulare and M. genavense cause chronic infections of the gastrointestinal tract and liver in birds and patients will present with signs of wasting, depression, diarrhea, polyuria, poor feather condition and abdominal distension. Diagnosis of the disease can be difficult since clinical signs are often non-specific and vary between individuals and species of birds. A combination of tests is often necessary, including CBC, chemistry panel, imaging techniques (radiographs, ultrasound, fluoroscopy) for a diagnosis. Histopathology and acid fast staining offer important diagnostic information. Genetic sequencing is needed to determine the species of mycobacteria. Challenges of treating avian patients include lack of owner compliance, long-term treatment (18 months or more), antimycobacterial drug resistance, contamination of the surrounding environment, a guarded prognosis and potential zoonosis. In this report, the author presents an atypical case of mycobacteriosis diagnosed in a red-lored amazon (Amazona autumnalis) by a combination of fluoroscopy, fine needle aspiration of the target organ and genetic sequencing of a duodenal biopsy. Treatment was accomplished with a combination of Rifabutin, Ethambutol, Ciprofloxacin and Clarithromycin.


Mycobacteria in an endemic acid-fact saprophyte in which the most common isolates are from food, water and soil. Mycobacterium avian intracellulare and M. genavense cause chronic infections of the gastrointestinal tract and liver in birds and patients will present with signs of wasting, depression, diarrhea, polyuria, poor feather condition and abdominal distension. Diagnosis of the disease can be difficult since clinical signs are often non-specific and vary between individuals and species of birds. A combination of tests is often necessary, including CBC, chemistry panel, imaging techniques (radiographs, ultrasound, fluoroscopy) for a diagnosis. Histopathology and acid fast staining offer important diagnostic information. Genetic sequencing is needed to determine the species of mycobacteria. Challenges of treating avian patients include lack of owner compliance, long-term treatment (18 months or more), antimycobacterial drug resistance, contamination of the surrounding environment, a guarded prognosis and potential zoonosis. In this report, the author presents an atypical case of mycobacteriosis diagnosed in a red-lored amazon (Amazona autumnalis) by a combination of fluoroscopy, fine needle aspiration of the target organ and genetic sequencing of a duodenal biopsy. Treatment was accomplished with a combination of Rifabutin, Ethambutol, Ciprofloxacin and Clarithromycin.

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Senior seminar paper
Seminar SF610.1 2009 S37
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2008-09-10
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Birds -- Infections -- Case studies; Birds -- Diseases -- Case studies
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term paper
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