Probable histiocytic sarcoma in a 10 year old Dachshund

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A 10 year old intact female Dachshund presented to Cornell University Hospital for Animals Emergency Service for lethargy and anemia. She was reported to have a one week history of lethargy and inappetance with rapid weight loss. She was taken to the referring veterinarian where survey radiographs showed gastric and colonic foreign bodies. Anemia was evident on routine bloodwork. The patient had one litter of puppies approximately 8 years prior to presentation. She lived with one other Dachshund and had free range of their owner’s land where they frequently caught and killed wildlife. She was observed chewing on rotten wood and grass; she also may have consumed dirt in the weeks prior to her presentation. On presentation, the patient was quiet, depressed and trembling. She was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 180 bpm, her respiratory rate was 40 bpm, and her temperature was 101.5F. Her mucous membranes were pale and slightly tacky with a CRT of less than two seconds. A grade IV/VI left apical systolic heart murmur was ausculted and her pulses were bounding. Quick assessment tests revealed anemia with a PCV of 20% and TP of 5.4g/dl. A blood smear showed mild anisocytosis. A blood chemistry panel revealed decreased levels of albumin, calcium and cholesterol. A urinalysis showed no abnormalities. Her DIC panel showed no abnormalities in her clotting times or evidence of clot formation. Radiographs were repeated and showed that foreign bodies were still present in the stomach, although the one in the colon had moved distally. A stone was removed via digital rectal palpation. Ultrasound examination showed that she had a diffusely enlarged spleen. The spleen was aspirated and the sample was submitted for cytologic examination. The aspirate of the spleen showed marked extramedullary hematopoiesis with a mild histiocytosis. A Coombs test was performed and the results were negative. A bone marrow aspirate and biopsy was performed. The bone marrow aspirate showed erythroid hyperplasia and a moderate histiocytosis.

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Senior seminar paper
Seminar SF610.1 2012
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Dogs -- Diseases -- Case studies
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