Dairy Farm Management Business Summary New York State 2013

Other Titles


Business and financial records for 2013 from 171 New York dairy farm businesses are summarized and analyzed. This analysis uses cash accounting with accrual adjustments to measure farm profitability, financial performance, and costs of producing milk. Traditional methods of analyzing dairy farm businesses are combined with evaluation techniques that show the relationship between good management performance and financial success. The farms in the project averaged 650 cows per farm and 25,532 pounds of milk sold per cow, which represent above average size and management level for New York dairy farms. The New York Agricultural Statistics Service reports 22,080 pounds milk production per cow for New York. An average New York large dairy has a herd size per farm of 758 and is estimated in Appendix Table A3, page 85. Net farm income excluding appreciation, which is the return to the operator's labor, management, capital, and other unpaid family labor, averaged $592,380 per farm. The rate of return to all capital invested in the farm business including appreciation averaged 9.93 percent. Differences in profitability between farms continue to widen. Average net farm income excluding appreciation of the top 10 percent of farms was $2,293,718, while the lowest 10 percent was $-14,804. Rates of return on equity with appreciation ranged from positive 29 percent to negative 10 percent for the highest decile and the lowest decile of farms, respectively. Large freestall farms averaged the highest milk output per cow and per worker, and the lowest total cost of production. In 2013 they averaged the highest returns to labor, management and capital. Farms milking three times a day (3X) were larger, produced more milk per cow and had higher net farm incomes in 2013 than herds milking two times per day (2X). Operating costs per hundredweight of milk were $0.35 per hundredweight lower for 3X than 2X milking herds, while output per cow was 4,758 pounds higher. Farms adopting intensive grazing generally produced less milk per cow than non-grazing farms and in 2013 averaged lower labor and management incomes per operator. One should not conclude that adoption of these technologies alone were responsible for differences in performance.

Journal / Series

Volume & Issue


R.B. 2014-02


Date Issued



Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University


Business Analysis; Dairy management; farm business summary; new york farms


Effective Date

Expiration Date




Union Local


Number of Workers

Committee Chair

Committee Co-Chair

Committee Member

Degree Discipline

Degree Name

Degree Level

Related Version

Related DOI

Related To

Related Part

Based on Related Item

Has Other Format(s)

Part of Related Item

Related To

Related Publication(s)

Link(s) to Related Publication(s)


Link(s) to Reference(s)

Previously Published As

Government Document




Other Identifiers


Rights URI



Accessibility Feature

Accessibility Hazard

Accessibility Summary

Link(s) to Catalog Record