Computational Tools for 3D Printing and Woven Textile Design

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Abstract
Fabrication has become an active topic in Computer Graphics recently. Besides the most common Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) method for 3D printing, various fabrication techniques such as wireframe printing and 3D weaving are emerging with specific advantages. These novel techniques call for new tools to aid design and new algorithms to process the input and generate machine instructions for fabrication. This dissertation includes three works on computational tools for wireframe printing and 3D weaving. In the first work, we present a method for printing arbitrary meshes on a 5DOF wireframe printer. We formalize the collision avoidance problem using a directed graph, and propose an algorithm that finds a locally minimal set of constraints on the order of edges that guarantees there will be no collisions. Then a second algorithm orders the edges so that the printing progresses smoothly. Though meshes do exist that still cannot be printed, our method prints a wide range of models that previous methods cannot, and it provides a fundamental enabling algorithm for future development of wireframe printing. The second work presents Weavecraft: an interactive, simulation-based design tool for 3D weaving. Unlike existing textile software that uses 2D representations for design patterns, we propose a novel weave block representation that helps the user to understand 3D woven structures and to create complex multi-layered patterns. With Weavecraft, users can create blocks either from scratch or by loading traditional weaves, compose the blocks into large structures, and edit the pattern at various scales. Furthermore, users can verify the design with a physically based simulator, which predicts and visualizes the geometric structure of the woven material and reveals potential defects at an interactive rate. We demonstrate a range of results created with our tool, from simple two-layer cloth and well known 3D structures to a more sophisticated design of a 3D woven shoe, and we evaluate the effectiveness of our system via a formative user study. Finally, the third work aims to make 3D weaving as readily usable as CNC machining or 3D printing, by providing an algorithm to convert an arbitrary 3D solid model into machine instructions to weave the corresponding shape. We propose a method to generate 3D weaving patterns for height fields by slicing the shape along intersecting arrays of parallel planes and then computing the paths for all the warp and weft yarns, which travel in these planes. We demonstrate the method by generating weave structures for different shapes and fabricating a number of examples in polyester yarn using a Jacquard loom.
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134 pages
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2020-08
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3D Printing; 3D Weaving; Additive Fabrication
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Committee Chair
Marschner, Stephen Robert
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Guimbretiere, Francois V.
Williamson, David P.
Degree Discipline
Computer Science
Degree Name
Ph. D., Computer Science
Degree Level
Doctor of Philosophy
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Government Document
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dissertation or thesis
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