On the Nature and Importance of Cultural Tightness-Looseness
Gelfand, Michele J.; Nishii, Lisa Hisae; Raver, Jana L.
Cross-cultural research is dominated by the use of values despite their mixed empirical support and their limited theoretical scope. This article expands the dominant paradigm in crosscultural research by developing a theory of cultural tightness-looseness, the strength of social norms and degree of sanctioning within societies, and advancing a multilevel research agenda for future research. Through an exploration of the top-down, bottom-up, and moderating impact that societal tightness-looseness has on individuals and organizations, as well as on variability across levels of analysis, the theory provides a new and complementary perspective to the values approach.
CAHRS; ILR; center; human resource; job; worker; advanced; labor market; satisfaction; employee; work; manage; management; health care; flexible benefit; HRM; employ; model; industrial relations; job satisfaction; job performance; productivity; measurement; compensation; pay; voluntary turnover; salary; pay level; benefit; pay raise; job growth; managerial; employment growth; college degree
Required Publisher Statement: © American Psychological Association. Final version published as: Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., & Raver, J. L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1225-1244. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1225Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.