Causes and Consequences of Collective Turnover: A Meta-Analytic Review
Heavey, Angela L.; Holwerda, Jacob A.; Hausknecht, John
Given growing interest in collective turnover (i.e., employee turnover at unit and organizational levels), the authors propose an organizing framework for its antecedents and consequences and test it using meta-analysis. Based on analysis of 694 effect sizes drawn from 82 studies, results generally support expected relationships across the 6 categories of collective turnover antecedents, with somewhat stronger and more consistent results for 2 categories: human resource management inducements/investments and job embeddedness signals. Turnover was negatively related to numerous performance outcomes, more strongly so for proximal rather than distal outcomes. Several theoretically grounded moderators help to explain average effect-size heterogeneity for both antecedents and consequences of turnover. Relationships generally did not vary according to turnover type (e.g., total or voluntary), although the relative absence of collective-level involuntary turnover studies is noted and remains an important avenue for future research.
collective turnover; organizational performance; retention; meta-analysis
Required Publisher Statement: © American Psychological Association. Final version published as: Heavey, A. L., Holwerda, J. A., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2013). Causes and consequences of collective turnover: A meta-analytic review [Electronic version]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 412-453. doi: 10.1037/a0032380 Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.