Coronaviruses as a cause of vascular disease: a comparative medicine approach
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Stout, Alison; Andre, Nicole M.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Baker, Susan; Whittaker, Gary R.
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, frequently manifests as a respiratory disease, including coughing, shortness of breath, fever, and loss of smell. However, additional disease manifestations occur across numerous organ systems, due at least in part to vasculitis and endotheliitis. COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was recently identified as a component of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In feline medicine, feline coronavirus is a common pathogen of cats that can lead to a fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Like COVID-19 in humans, clinical manifestations of FIP are due, in part, to coronavirus-induced vasculitis that can also result in a fatal multisystem inflammatory syndrome in cats. As such, studies investigating how feline coronavirus infection can cause disseminated vasculitis in FIP cats will provide new information that can translate to understanding COVID-19 in humans. We argue for a comparative medicine approach for tackling coronavirus diseases.
Though SARS-CoV-2 is associated with respiratory pathology, additional manifestations are frequently caused by vasculitis. In cats, the disease feline infectious peritonitis, caused by feline coronavirus, also results in vasculitis and numerous disease manifestations. Here we review the similarities between COVID-19 and FIP.
AES is supported by NIH Comparative Medicine Training Program T32OD011000. GRW is funded by NIH grants R01AI135270 and R21AI135373, SCB is funded by NIH grant R01 AI085089. Research on FIP in the author’s labs is funded in part by the Winn Feline Foundation and the Cornell Feline Health Center.
SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Feline coronavirus; FIP; Coronavirus; Vasculitis
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