Nineteen Ways to Compute the Exponential of a Matrix
Moler, C. B.; Van Loan, Charles
In principle, the exponential of a matrix could be computed in many ways. Methods involving approximation theory, differential equations, the matrix eigenvalues, and the matrix characteristic polynomial have been proposed. In practice, consideration of computational stability and efficiency indicates that some of the methods are preferable to others, but that none are completely satisfactory.
computer science; technical report
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