INEQUALITY OF YEARS OF SCHOOLING, STUNTING, AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD BMI IN CHINA
Despite the rapid economic growth in China, income inequality has widened, especially between the urban, eastern coastal provinces and rural inland areas due to unbalanced economic development and different access to resources. Inequality in education and health are correlated with income inequality, and in turn affects people’s human capital and ability to work, further reinforcing the income inequality. In Chapter I, I explore to what extent is inequality of years of schooling in China from half a century ago to nowadays affected by circumstance factors rather than personal effort. I decompose inequality into between group inequality (inequality of opportunity which is determined by circumstances) and within group inequality. I apply China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2016 follow up survey data to compare the results with the previous study and discuss relative policy implications. I find inequality for the opportunity constitutes 29% of the educational outcome inequality on population born from 1940 to 1994 and hukou is the most influential circumstance factor. In Chapter II, I investigate the environmental factors that cause child stunting inequality in China. I apply China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data from 1989 to 2011 to measure stunting inequality by concentration index and decompose changes in inequalities. I find the notable income growth in China reduces average stunting level. However, increased income exaggerates stunting inequality by increasing income inequality’s contribution to stunting inequality. In Chapter III, I explore to what extent is inequality well-being as represented by body mass index (BMI) attributable to intra-household inequality, whether the health resource deprivation exists among family members, and whether a Kuznets curve relationship between intra-household inequality and average well-being exists. From available data from CHNS, I find intra-household inequality accounts for more than a half of outcome inequality, and no clear pattern of deprivation among family members nor Kuznets curve relationship has been found.
Education; Economics; Inequality; stunting; BMI; intra-household; china
Nicholson, Charles Frederick
Applied Economics and Management
M.S., Applied Economics and Management
Master of Science
dissertation or thesis