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dc.contributor.authorAgrawal, Anurag A.
dc.description.abstractHypothesis: Genetic variation in plant defence structures a community of herbivores and ultimately mediates co-evolution. Organisms: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and five natural insect herbivores (seed bug, leaf mining fly, monarch caterpillar and two beetles). Methods: Quantitative genetic field experiment over 2 years, genetic selection analyses, and measurement of five defensive traits (cardenolides, latex, trichomes, leaf toughness and nitrogen content). Results: All plant traits were genetically variable; directional selection favoured resistance to herbivory, latex production and the nitrogen content of leaves. Trichomes and latex were each negatively genetically correlated with abundances of herbivores, but not with herbivore damage; cardenolides and induced plant resistance were negatively genetically correlated with growth of monarchs. Conclusion: Selection for plant defence was influenced by: (1) genetic correlations in plant susceptibility to multiple herbivores; (2) resistance traits affecting some, but not all, aspects of the insect community; and (3) early season herbivory inducing changes in milkweed influencing later season herbivores.
dc.description.sponsorshipMy research and laboratory ( are supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Koffler Scientific Reserve at Joker’s Hill, Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and a Premier’s Research Excellence Award from the Government of Ontario.
dc.publisherEvolutionary Ecology
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEvolutionary Ecology Research
dc.relation.hasversionAgrawal, Anurag. (2005). Natural selection on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) by a community of specialized insect. Evolutionary Ecology Research. 7.
dc.subjectgenetic selection analysis
dc.subjectmonarch butterfly
dc.subjectplant-insect interactions
dc.subjectquantitative genetic field experiment
dc.titleNatural selection on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) by a community of specialized insect herbivores

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