CLINICAL VALIDATION OF CONSUMER SLEEP MONITORING DEVICES & DESIGN, PROTOTYPING, AND PILOT TESTING OF NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND INSOMNIA
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Zavrel, Erik Alexander
The research presented herein focuses on medical devices for sleep. The body of this dissertation is organized into three main sections. The first is dedicated to the clinical validation of several consumer sleep monitoring devices. The ability to investigate sleep is of scientific and clinical interest. Polysomnography has long been considered the gold standard assessment for sleep physiology; however, its cost and inconvenience have spurred the development of consumer devices capable of evaluating sleep outside the laboratory. Device performance is compared against polysomnography, inter-device comparison is made, and suggestions for device improvement tendered. In the second section, design, prototyping, and pilot testing of a novel genioglossal strengthening device intended as a non-pharmacological intervention for Obstructive Sleep Apnea is detailed. In the third, several novel non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of insomnia are detailed: the first, a simple and comfortable garment with lateralized thermal properties that promotes either thermal conduction or thermal insulation depending upon body position, is intended to allow sleepers to auto-regulate proximal skin temperature through subtle movements during brief transient arousals, preserving overall sleep architecture and improving sleep quality; the second, a specially constructed insulating palmar / plantar muff that promotes either heat retention or heat dissipation depending upon digit flexion or digit extension, respectively, is intended to allow sleepers to auto-regulate distal skin temperature through subtle movements during sleep; the third, a wearable method of cutaneous warming, is based on the established functional link between distal vasodilation and sleep induction and employs localized heating of the hands and feet to induce vasodilation of the underlying blood vessels, increase blood flow to the extremities, increase distal skin temperature, promote net body heat loss, and facilitate sleep onset; and the fourth, a novel two-degree-of-freedom mechatronic bed, is based on the demonstrated link between motion-induced vestibular stimulation and sleep induction. Encouraging preliminary data was obtained in pilot testing of our prototype devices. Taken collectively, the devices and results presented herein show great potential to treat the two most common sleep disorders.
Supplemental file(s) description: Appendix II.A.1, Appendix II.A.2, Appendix II.A.3, Appendix II.A.4, Appendix II.B.1, Appendix II.C.1, Appendix II.D.1, Appendix II.E.1, Appendix III.1, Appendix III.2, Appendix III.3, Appendix III.4, Appendix III.5, Appendix III.6, Appendix III.7, Appendix IV.1, Appendix IV.2, Appendix IV.3, Appendix IV.4, Appendix IV.5
Electrical engineering; insomnia; instrumentation; medical devices; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep disorders; sleep medicine; Biomedical engineering; Neurosciences
Shuler, Michael Louis
Doerschuk, Peter; Schaffer, Chris
Ph. D., Biomedical Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
dissertation or thesis
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