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dc.contributor.authorLynch, David Michael
dc.identifier.otherbibid: 10474211
dc.description.abstractFlat panel displays have become ubiquitous, enabling products from highresolution cell phones to ultra-large television panels. Amorphous silicon (a- Si) has been the industry workhorse as the active semiconductor in pixeladdressing transistors due to its uniformity and low production costs. However, a-Si can no longer support larger and higher-resolution displays, and new materials with higher electron mobilities are required. Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), which retains the uniformity and low cost of amorphous films, has emerged as a viable candidate due to its enhanced transport properties. However, a-IGZO devices suffer from long-term instabilities—the origins of which are not yet fully understood—causing a drift in switching characteristics over time and affecting product lifetime. More recently, devices fabricated from textured nanocrystalline IGZO, termed c-axis aligned crystalline (CAAC), have demonstrated superior stability. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the phase formation and crystallization kinetics of either the CAAC structure or in the broader ternary IGZO system. Crystallinity and texture of CAAC IGZO films deposited by RF reactive sputtering were studied and characterized over a wide range of deposition conditions. The characteristic CAAC (0 0 9) peak at 2 = 30 was observed by X-ray diffraction, and nanocrystalline domain texture was determined using a general area detector diffraction system (GADDS). Highly ordered CAAC films were obtained near the InGaZnO4 composition at a substrate temperature of 310C and in a 10%O2/90% Ar sputtering ambient. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the formation of CAAC and identified 2– 3 nm domains coherently aligned over large ranges extending beyond the field of view (15 nm 15 nm). Cross-section HRTEM of the CAAC/substrate interface shows formation of an initially disordered IGZO layer prior to CAAC formation, suggesting a nucleation mechanism similar to ZnO thin films. A classical nucleation and growth model is proposed and compared to alternative models proposed in literature. Extending this study of CAAC IGZO, the formation and growth of crystalline IGZO over a wide composition range and processing conditions were explored. IGZO itself is one composition of a class of homologous structures in the pseudo-binary InGaO3(ZnO)m system. For integer m, the equilibrium structure is known and well-characterized; however, for non-integer m, disorder must exist and the kinetics of the structural development remain almost completely unknown. A high-throughput (combinatorial) approach utilizing co-sputter deposition, millisecond timescale thermal gradient laser annealing, and spatially-resolved characterization using microbeam wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the structural evolution as a function of temperature, time, and composition. As-deposited films were amorphous in the InGaO3- rich composition range, becoming crystalline (wurtzite) with increasing ZnO content. Under millisecond heating, films evolved toward the equilibrium layered structure consisting of nearly pure In2O3 layers with (Ga, Zn)Ox interlayers. Composition deviations (non-integer m) are discussed within a model of cationic disorder in both the In2O3 layers and the (Ga, Zn)Ox layers. Crystal-tocrystal transformations in the high-ZnO region are discussed within the context of a new growth model for these homologous structures. This deeper understanding of the nature of crystalline IGZO will help to enable the successful implementation of CAAC IGZO for high-performance display applications.
dc.subjectElectrical engineering
dc.subjectCrystallization Kinetics
dc.subjectHomologous Compounds
dc.subjectMillisecond Annealing
dc.subjectLaser Spike Annealing
dc.subjectMaterials Science
dc.titleIndium Gallium Zinc Oxide: Phase Formation and Crystallization Kinetics During Millisecond Laser Spike Annealing
dc.typedissertation or thesis Science and Engineering University of Philosophy D., Materials Science and Engineering
dc.contributor.chairThompson, Michael Olgar
dc.contributor.committeeMemberShealy, James Richard
dc.contributor.committeeMemberAst, Dieter G.
dc.contributor.committeeMemberGreene, Raymond G

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