Now showing items 1-20 of 85

    • Contract Farming in Developing Countries: Patterns, Impact, and Policy Implications 

      Minot, Nicholas (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Contract farming may be defined as agricultural production carried out according to a prior agreement in which the farmer commits to producing a given product in a given manner and the buyer commits to purchasing it. Often, ...
    • Enhancing Smallholder Farmers' Market Competitiveness in Tanzania 

      Kawa, Ibrahim; Kaitira, Loyce M. (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Tanzanian agriculture is dominated by small-scale subsistence farming. Like the entire economy, agriculture is in a transition from being a command to a market-based production system. The transition process started in the ...
    • Food Price Stabilization Policies in a Globalizing World 

      Rashid, Shahidur (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      This case examines various aspects of food price instability. It focuses on (1) the sources of price instability, (2) various policy options and the conditions under which they are viable, and (3) experiences with both ...
    • Rural Road Investments, Agricultural Development, and Poverty Alleviation in China 

      Shimokawa, Satoru (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Beginning in late 1978, China adopted a series of policy and institutional reforms and achieved rapid economic growth and poverty reduction. National gross domestic product (GDP) grew at more than 9 percent a year from ...
    • Food Policy and Social Movements: Reflections on the Right to Food Campaign in India 

      Srinivasan, Vivek; Narayanan, Sudha (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      The Right to Food Campaign in India began in 2001. It was a time of absurd paradox. Even as the foodgrain stocks held by the government rose to 50 million metric tons, several parts of the country were reeling from a third ...
    • Biofortification in a Food Chain Approach in West Africa 

      Slingerland, Maja (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      About 800 million people suffer from hunger, but even more suffer from micronutrient malnutrition, also called “hidden hunger.” Iodine, vitamin A, iron, and zinc malnutrition are major concerns. About 2 billion people, ...
    • Iron Deficiency in Bangladesh 

      Mwaniki, Angela (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Iron deficiency, the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affects more than 2 billion people. In Bangladesh it affects about half of all children and more than 70 percent of all women. The main cause of ...
    • Salmonella Control in Denmark and the EU 

      Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Potential food safety hazards include foodborne pathogens,1 use of antibiotics leading to resistant bacteria, chemical residuals in food products, medicine residues, growth hormones, and genetically modified organisms. The ...
    • The Nutrition Transition and Obesity in China 

      Cheng, Fuzhi (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Before China’s economic reforms of the late 1970s, the typical Chinese diet consisted primarily of grain products and starchy roots, with few animal source foods, caloric sweeteners, or fruits and vegetables. Since the ...
    • Biodiesel and India's Rural Economy 

      Rhoads, James (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      With annual economic growth rates of more than 7 percent and a population of well over a billion, India has a huge amount of global clout, both economically and environmentally. Although this recent economic growth has ...
    • Farm Restructuring in Transition: Land Distribution in Russia 

      Serova, Eugenia (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      The agrarian reform of the 1990s in Russia was targeted at transforming the formerly state-owned and centrally planned agriculture sector to a market-oriented one. The reform dramatically changed farm structure and land ...
    • The Sugar Controversy 

      Vio, Fernando; Uauy, Ricardo (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Sugar, one of the world's most important food commodities, provides a high percentage of calories for the population in many countries. But consumption of calories either as sugar or fat by sedentary populations promotes ...
    • Biosafety, Trade, and the Cartagena Protocol 

      Cheng, Fuzhi (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Global production of genetically modified (GM) agricultural commodities has increased significantly in the past decade. Some people see GM crops as offering new hope in addressing some of the most serious problems that ...
    • Producer Subsidies and Decoupling in the European Union and the United States 

      Jensen, Maria Skovager; Zobbe, Henrik (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Since 1986 agriculture has been a major part of multilateral trade negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and since 1995 under the World Trade Organization (WTO). The main objective of these ...
    • Meeting Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Standards: What Can China Do? 

      Cheng, Fuzhi (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      It is widely recognized that rising sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards have created numerous obstacles to the international exchange of agricultural commodities. The issue is of particular importance for developing ...
    • Tariff Escalation in World Agricultural Trade 

      Cheng, Fuzhi (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Tariff escalation, a common practice in international commodity trade, refers to a situation where tariffs are zero or low on primary products and increase, or escalate, as products undergo processing. It causes the price ...
    • The Impact of U.S. Subsidies on West African Cotton Production 

      Woodward, Andrea R. (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Cotton subsidies and their impact on international prices and on the livelihoods of poor African cotton farmers have become a central focus of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. ...
    • Globalization and the Nutrition Transition: A Case Study 

      Hawkes, Corinna (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      In the current “nutrition transition,” the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The nutrition transition, implicated in the rapid rise ...
    • The 2002 Malawi Famine 

      Phillips, Erica (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      Famine has been described as “a catastrophic disruption of the social, economic, and institutional systems that provide for food production, distribution, and consumption” (von Braun et al. 1998). Famines have occurred in ...
    • Policy Implications of Droughts and Food Insecurity in Malawi and Zambia 

      Philipose, Anandita (CUL Initiatives in Publishing (CIP), 2007)
      This paper examines the recent droughts in Malawi and Zambia (covering the period 1990–2005 but with a focus on the 2001/2002 Southern African crisis), analyzing the impact of the droughts on food security and the responses ...