Transgenic papaya story: still a public-sector anomaly?
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Papaya is the cheapest, most nutritious fruit in Hawaii. When papaya in Hawaii was threatened by the PRS virus. Efforts were made to save the crop, but all conventional methods failed, threatening a major basic food source for people not just in Hawaii, but all over the developing world. Eventually virus resistance was introduced through genetic engineering. This was achieved entirely through public sector research and the resistant plant material provided to farmers in Hawaii for free.
Agricultural biotechnology; specialty crops; transgenic papaya; stakeholders; genetic engineering; GE; GMO; regulation; food safety; USDA; novel traits; premarket approval; intellectual property; patents; human health impacts; synthetic genomics