World agriculture faces the dual challenges of increasing crop production and addressing climate change. Increasing population, diets inclusive of more animal-based foods, and increased manufacture of biobased industrial products will require increased crop production of at least 50% by 2050. Agriculture produces approximately 10% of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) (CO2, CH4, N2O). Our plant and animal agricultural production systems will need to mitigate production of GHGs and adapt to the stresses of climate change, as well as take advantages of benefits. A bigger question for agriculture than change itself will be how to deal with the unpredictability of alterations in temperature, precipitation levels and patterns, and growing season and of extreme weather events. Furthermore, the challenges posed by climate change must be met by agriculture as the industry deals with declining reserves of fossil fuels and fertilizers.