The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 created a new, and sometimes controversial, industry based on diet and health. Functional foods and nutraceuticals are foods or ingredients that are perceived by the consumer to be beneficial to health. The functional food industry has shown meteoric growth over the past several years, and is currently estimated at around $18 billion in annual revenues. However, major challenges remain. Early entrants to the nutraceuticals market relied heavily on advertising to gain market share, without strong evidence of product efficacy. Only in recent years, with the involvement of larger and more sophisticated companies, have science and proven efficacy brought broader support.