Functional foods are whole foods enhanced to provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Enhanced nutrition and dietary modification can dramatically reduce incidence of some diseases. Dietary changes, including greater consumption of fruits and vegetables, can reduce cancer risk by 30 to 40%. Consumers could be in a position to choose specifically tailored functional foods to address their particular needs. Consumers appear increasingly likely to treat themselves before seeing a physician, suggesting that new functional foods could enter into a ready marketplace. Technological advances, the ability to add positive attributes and remove the negative, would also contribute to this vision. At the same time narrowing the gaps between dietary supplements, foods, drugs and herbal-fortified products will pose challenges for scientists and regulators.