After technical, regulatory, and consumer acceptance there is an additional major hurdle in biotechnology development: intellectual property. For some technologies and genes, patents have been issued and represent barriers to commercialization. For other patents are still pending and represent an uncertainty. Patents are being aggressively enforced and used to establish competitive advantage in the marketplace. However, the modification of consumer-preferences traits could have implications beyond the simple gene insertion: cultivation, post-harvest treatment, packing, and shipping.
Agricultural biotechnology; genetic engineering, recombinant DNA; feed industry; energy industry; consumer sentiment; population growth; environmental impacts; bioremediation; risk assessment; regulation; global market system;
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