Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: The impact of soil variables
McBride, Murray; Shayler, Hannah; Spliethoff, Henry; Mitchell, Rebecca; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia; Ferenz, Gretchen; Russell-Anelli, Johnathan; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon
Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability.
Urban vegetable gardening; Plant metals uptake; Soil particle adherence; Lead; Cadmium; Barium
Previously Published As
McBride, M., Shayler, H., Spliethoff, H., Mitchell, R., Marquez-Bravo, L., Ferenz, G., Russell-Anelli, J., Casey, L., Bachman, S. 2014. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: The impact of soil variables. Environmental Pollution. 194:254-261