Landscapes Of Disadvantage: The Structure Of American Indian Poverty From The Reservation To The Metropolis In The Early 21St Century
The cycle of American Indian disadvantage and deprivation has been linked to the removal and relocation of American Indian peoples to reservations, entrenching) cycles)of)poverty)within)reservation)boundaries.)Yet)a)growing)number)of)American) Indians)live)in)metropolitan)areas,)the)result)of)a)demographic)shift)that)began)in)the)wake) of)World)War)II. This project examines American Indian poverty, recognizing that trends in poverty outcomes may be influenced by American Indian land tenure and governance, tribal economic development, and American Indian migration.) To disentangle the dimensions of poverty as experienced by American Indians in different social and territorial environments, this dissertation is composed of three distinct, yet parallel analyses of place-level poverty and its determinants, using data from the American Community Survey, Five-Year Dataset 2006-2010. The first analysis examines the determinants of American Indian poverty rates at the county-level within the contiguous 48 states. The second similarly structured analysis occurs at the level of federal American Indian reservations and trust lands. And in the final analysis, American Indian poverty rates in metropolitan counties are analyzed, including parallel analyses of poverty rates of other racial groups. The findings of the analyses collectively indicate that)the)most)influential) determinants)were)indicators)of)local)opportunity)structure.))Yet)the)determinants)of) poverty)were)not)identical)in)their)effects)on)poverty)rates)across)different)places)of) measurement.)At the county level, higher poverty rates were associated with a lack of work opportunities and income inequality, while the presence of federal American Indian lands was associated with lower rates of poverty. On)American)Indian)lands,) poverty)rates)were)predominantly)determined)by)work)opportunities,)with)the)presence)of) a)gaming)compact)associated)with)lower)poverty)rates.)At)the)metropolitan)level,)American) Indian)poverty)rates)were)determined)primarily)by)the)degree)of)income)inequality)in)the) locale,)work)opportunities,)and)the)percentage)of)youth.))Additionally,)the)pattern)of) poverty)determinants)varied)by)race)within)metropolitan)counties.)) ) ) ) )
American Indian; Poverty; Place
Pfeffer, Max John
Brown, David L; Gonzales, Angela A.
Ph.D. of Development Sociology
Doctor of Philosophy
dissertation or thesis