Now showing items 82-101 of 130

    • Nitrogen fluxes from large watershed to coastal ecosystems controlled by net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs and climate 

      Howarth, R. W.; Swaney, D. P.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Hong, B.; Humborg, C.; Johnes, P.; Morth, C.; Marino, R. M. (Wiley, 2011-07-15)
      The flux of nitrogen (N) to coastal marine ecosystems is strongly correlated with the net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) to the landscape across 154 watersheds, ranging in size from 16 km 2 to 279 000 km 2, in the ...
    • Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen 

      Carpenter, S. R.; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.; Smith, V. H. (Wiley, 1998-08-01)
      Agriculture and urban activities are major sources of phosphorus and nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition further contributes as a source of N. These nonpoint inputs of nutrients are difficult to measure ...
    • Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in Vineyard Sound and Oyster Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts 

      Weber, C. F.; Barron, S.; Marino, R. M.; Howarth, R. W.; Tomasky, G.; Davidson, E. A. (University of Chicago Press, 2002-10)
      Intensive agriculture represents a recent extension of green roof technology. Perceived ecosystem services provided by rooftop farming include stormwater management and the production of affordable and nutritious vegetables ...
    • Of mice and ‘convicts’: origin of the Australian house mouse, Mus musculus 

      Gabriel, S.I.; Stevens, M.I.; Mathias, M.L.; Searle, J.B. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2011-12-12)
      The house mouse, Mus musculus, is one of the most ubiquitous invasive species worldwide and in Australia is particularly common and widespread, but where it originally came from is still unknown. Here we investigated this ...
    • Organic and Conventional Farming Systems: Environmental and Economic Issues. 

      Pimentel, David; Hepperly, Paul; Hanson, James; Seidel, Rita; Douds, David (2005-07)
    • Over a Thousand Years of Evolutionary History of Domestic Geese from Russian Archaeological Sites, Analysed Using Ancient DNA 

      Honka, J.; Heino, M.T.; Kvist, L.; Askeyev, I.V.; Shaymuratova, D.N.; Askeyev, O.V.; Askeyev, A.O.; Heikkinen, M.E.; Searle, J.B.; Aspi, J. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2018-07-20)
      The European domestic goose is a widely farmed species known to have descended from the wild greylag goose (Anser anser). However, the evolutionary history of this domesticate is still poorly known. Ancient DNA studies ...
    • Partial photoperiodic control of diapause in three populations of the freshwater copepod Diaptomus sanguineus 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Olds, Emily J. (University of Chicago Press, 1986-08)
      Populations of the freshwater calanoid copepod Diaptomus sanguineus inhabiting three Rhode Island ponds switch from making subitaneous (immediately hatching) to diapausing eggs on different dates. From results of previous ...
    • Pericentromeric organization at the fusion point of mouse Robertsonian translocation chromosomes 

      Garagna, Silvia; Marziliano, Nicola; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Searle, Jeremy B.; Capanna, Ernesto; Redi, Carlo Alberto (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2001-01-02)
      In mammals, Robertsonian (Rb) translocation (the joining of two teloy acrocentric chromosomes at their centromere to form a metacentric) is the most effective process in chromosomal evolution leading to speciation; ...
    • Phenotypic variation across chromosomal hybrid zones of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) indicates reduced gene flow 

      Polly, P.D.; Polyakov, A.V.; Ilyashenko, V.B.; Onischenko, S.S.; White, T.A.; Shchipanov, N.A.; Bulatova, N.S.; Pavlova, S.V.; Borodin, P.M.; Searle, J.B. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2013-07-10)
      Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, ...
    • Phenotypic variation in a zooplankton egg bank 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Kearns, Colleen M.; Ellner, Stephen P. (Ecological Society of America, 1996-12)
      Dormant propagule pools may store potentially significant genetic variation that can influence the rate and direction of microevolution via directional selection, tem- porally fluctuating selection, and evolution of trait ...
    • Photoprotection by carotenoid pigments in the copepod Diaptomus nevadensis 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr. (National Academy of Sciences, 1976-03)
      Individuals of the copepod Diaptomus nevadensis that contain high concentrations of carotenoids survive significantly better in natural intensities of visible light than less pigmented copepods. Vertical migration and ...
    • Phylogenetic and Experimental Tests of Interactions among Mutualistic Plant Defense Traits in Viburnum (Adoxaceae) 

      Weber, Marjorie G.; Clement, Wendy L.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (University of Chicago Press, 2012-10)
      Plant traits that mediate mutualistic interactions are widespread, yet few studies have linked their macroevolutionary patterns with the ecological interactions they mediate. Here we merged phylogenetic and experimental ...
    • Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Fishbein, Mark (National Academy of Sciences, 2008-07-22)
      As the basal resource in most food webs, plants have evolved myriad strategies to battle consumption by herbivores. Over the past 50 years, plant defense theories have been formulated to explain the remarkable variation ...
    • Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) 

      Burge, Dylan O.; Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (PeerJ, 2013-04-23)
      Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of ...
    • Plant chemical defense indirectly mediates aphid performance via interactions with tending ants 

      Zust, Tobias; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2017-01-06)
      The benefits of mutualistic interactions are often highly context dependent. We studied the interaction between the milkweed aphid Aphis asclepiadis and a tending ant, Formica podzolica. Although this interaction is generally ...
    • Plant genotype and environment interact to shape a diverse arthropod community on evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) 

      Johnson, Mark T.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2005-04-01)
      Both an individual's genotype and environment govern its phenotype, and this phenotype may have extended consequences for species interactions and communities. We examined the importance of plant genotype and environmental ...
    • Plant Genotype Shapes Ant-Aphid Interactions: Implications for Community Structure and Indirect Plant Defense 

      Mooney, Kailen A.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (University of Chicago Press, 2008-04-15)
      Little is known about the mechanisms by which plant genotype shapes arthropod community structure. In a field experiment, we measured the effects of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) genotype and ants on milkweed arthropods. ...
    • Playing Hide-and-Seek in Beta-Globin Genes: Gene Conversion Transferring a Beneficial Mutation between Differentially Expressed Gene Duplicates 

      Strážnická, Michaela; Marková, Silvia; Searle, J. B.; Kotlík, Petr (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2018-10-12)
      Increasing evidence suggests that adaptation to diverse environments often involves selection on existing variation rather than new mutations. A previous study identified a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ...
    • Prey evolution on the time scale of predator-prey dynamics revealed by allele-specific quantitative PCR 

      Meyer, J. R.; Ellner, S. P.; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Jones, L. E.; Yoshida, T. (National Academy of Sciences, 2006-07-11)
      Using rotifer-algal microcosms, we tracked rapid evolution resulting from temporally changing natural selection in ecological predator-prey dynamics. We previously demonstrated that predator-prey oscillations in rotifer-algal ...
    • R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse 

      Didion, John P.; Morgan, Andrew P.; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A.; McMullan, Rachel C.; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J.; Campbell, Karl J.; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J.; Crowley, James J.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Förster, Daniel W.; French, John E.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Grize, Sofia A.; Gündüz, ?slam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Holt, James M.; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J.; Lindholm, Anna K.; López-Fuster, María J.; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; da Graça Morgado Ramalhinho, Maria; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P.; Searle, J. B.; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L.; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W.; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M.; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando (Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2016-02-15)
      A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. ...