Now showing items 56-75 of 131

    • Filling key gaps in population and community ecology 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Ackerly, David D.; Adler, Fred; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Caceres, Carla; Doak, Daniel F.; Post, Eric; Hudson, Peter J.; Maron, John L.; Mooney, Kailen A.; Power, Mary; Schemske, Doug; Stachowicz, Jay; Strauss, Sharon; Turner, Monica G.; Werner, Earl (Ecological Society of America, 2007-04-01)
      We propose research to fill key gaps in the areas of population and community ecology, based on a National Science Foundation workshop identifying funding priorities for the next 5–10 years. Our vision for the near future ...
    • Fish size, visual resolution, and prey selectivity 

      Li, Kao T.; Wetterer, James K.; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr. (Ecological Society of America, 1985-12)
      Planktivorous bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are known to consume large prey preferentially. Disagreement exists in the literature over whether this size-selectivity reflects optimal foraging behavior by the fish ...
    • Fitness consequences of occasional outcrossing in a functionally asexual plant (Oenothera biennis) 

      Maron, John L.; Johnson, Mark T.; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2017-12-02)
      Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long?term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field ...
    • Genetic architecture of skewed X inactivation in the laboratory mouse 

      Calaway, J.D.; Lenarcic, A.B.; Didion, J.P.; Wang, J.R.; Searle, J.B.; McMillan, L.; Valdar, W.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, F. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2013-10-03)
      X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mammalian mechanism of dosage compensation that balances X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Early during female development, each cell of the embryo proper independently ...
    • Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural systems 

      Cleveland, C. C.; Townsend, A. R.; Schimel, D. S.; Fisher, H.; Howarth, R. W.; Hedin, L. O.; Perakis, S. S.; Latty, E. F.; von Fischer, J. C.; Elseroad, A.; Wasson, M. F. (Wiley, 1999-06-01)
      Human activities have clearly caused dramatic alterations of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle, and analyses of the extent and effects of such changes are now common in the scientific literature. However, any attempt to ...
    • Greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water: heat pumps compared to most commonly used systems 

      Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W. (Wiley, 2016-01-25)
      We estimate the emissions of the two most important greenhouse gasses (GHG), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), from the use of modern high-efficiency heat pump water heaters compared to the most commonly used domestic ...
    • Growth-related constraints on diet selection by sunfish 

      Walton, William E.; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Wetterer, James K. (Ecological Society of America, 1992-04)
      Diet selectivity by the planktivorous bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) is correlated with the fishes' visual resolution. Poor visual capabilities are thought to impose a constraint on the ability of small sunfish to ...
    • Host-range evolution: adaptation and trade-offs in fitness of mites on alternative hosts 

      Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2000-02-01)
      Trade?offs in fitness on different host plants has been a central hypothesis in explaining the evolutionary specialization of herbivores. Surprisingly, only a few studies have documented such trade?offs. In this paper, I ...
    • House mice with metacentric chromosomes in the Middle East 

      Gündüz, I.; Tez, C.; Searle, J.B. (Wiley, 2000-10-30)
    • Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Causes and consequences 

      Vitousek, P.M.; Aber, J.; Bayley, S. E.; Howarth, R. W.; Likens, G. E.; Matson, P. A.; Schindler, D. W.; Schlesinger, W. H.; Tilman, G. D. (Wiley, 1997-08-01)
      Nitrogen is a key element controlling the species composition, diversity, dynamics, and functioning of many terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Many of the original plant species living in these ecosystems are ...
    • Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle 

      Townsend, A. R.; Howarth, R. W.; Bazzaz, F. A.; Booth, M. S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Collinge, S. K.; Dobson, A. P.; Epstein, P. R.; Holland, E. A.; Keeney, D. R.; Mallin, M. A.; Rogers, C. A.; Wayne, P.; Wolfe, A. H. (Wiley, 2003-06-01)
      Changes to the global nitrogen cycle affect human health well beyond the associated benefits of increased food production. Many intensively fertilized crops become animal feed, helping to create disparities in world food ...
    • Induced plant defence and the evolution of counter-defences in herbivores 

      Gardner, Shea N.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Evolutionary Ecology, 2002)
      We examine how induced plant defences affect the evolution of resistance in herbivores (i.e. the ability to overcome plant defences) compared with constitutive defence strategies. Since resistance of herbivores may evolve ...
    • Induction of Preference and Performance after Acclimation to Novel Hosts in a Phytophagous Spider Mite: Adaptive Plasticity? 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Vala, F.; Sabelis, M. W. (University of Chicago Press, 2001-10-29)
      We examined induction of preference and performance on novel host plants for two laboratory populations of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae, with one population adapted to bean and the other population adapted ...
    • Influence of prey availability and induced host-plant resistance on omnivory by western flower thrips 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Kobayashi, Chris; Thaler, Jennifer S. (Ecological Society of America, 1999-03-01)
      Theory predicts that the balance of nutritional needs, food availability, and the quality of particular food items are important factors in the feeding decisions of omnivorous animals. In this study we investigate factors ...
    • Inputs of sediment and carbon to an estuarine ecosystem: Influence of land use 

      Howarth, R. W.; Fruci, J.R.; Sherman, D.M. (Wiley, 1991-02-01)
      Estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems receive large inputs of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments from non—point—source runoff from terrestrial ecosystems. In the tidal, freshwater Hudson River estuary, such inputs ...
    • Intense Disturbance Enhances Plant Susceptibility to Herbivory: Natural and Experimental Evidence 

      Spiller, David A.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2003-04-01)
      Following Hurricane Lili, which passed directly over the site of our ongoing study in Great Exuma, Bahamas, herbivory increased on devastated islands exposed to the storm surge, but not on protected islands. Observations ...
    • Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) invasion in Ireland 

      McDevitt, A.D.; Montgomery, W.I.; Tosh, D.G.; Lusby, J; Reid, N.; White, T.A.; McDevitt, C.D.; O’Halloran, J.; Searle, J.B.; Yearsley, J.M. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2014-06-23)
      Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that ...
    • Land-bridge calibration of molecular clocks and the post-glacial colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian field vole Microtus agrestis 

      Herman, J.S.; McDevitt, A.D.; Kawałko, A.; Jaarola, M.; Wójcik, J.M.; Searle, J.B. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2014-08-11)
      Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates ...
    • Leaf Damage and Associated Cues Induce Aggressive Ant Recruitment in a Neotropical Ant-Plant 

      Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 1998-09-01)
      Induced chemical responses following herbivory are common in plants. Plant responses that change the level of physical or biotic defense are less well documented and poorly understood. Many Azteca spp. ants are obligate ...
    • Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife 

      Johnson, P. T.; Townsend, A. R.; Cleveland, C. C.; Glibert, P. M.; Howarth, R. W.; McKenzie, V. J.; Rejmankova, E.; Ward, M. H. (Wiley, 2010-01-10)
      Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems ...