Now showing items 38-57 of 130

    • Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification 

      Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (National Academy of Sciences, 2014-09-22)
      The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation ...
    • Direct and interactive effects of enemies and mutualists on plant performance: A meta-analysis 

      Morris, William F.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Bever, James D.; Borowicz, Victoria A.; Gilbert, Gregory S.; Maron, John L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Parker, Ingrid M.; Power, Alison G.; Torchin, Mark E.; Vazquez, Diego P. (Ecological Society of America, 2007-04-01)
      Plants engage in multiple, simultaneous interactions with other species; some (enemies) reduce and others (mutualists) enhance plant performance. Moreover, effects of different species may not be independent of one another; ...
    • Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands 

      Martínková, Natália; Barnett, Ross; Cucchi, Thomas; Struchen, Rahel; Pascal, Marine; Pascal, Michel; Fischer, Martin C.; Higham, Thomas; Brace, Selina; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; O'Higgins, Paul; Excoffier, Laurent; Heckel, Gerald; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Dobney, Keith M.; Searle, J.B. (Wiley, 2013-10-10)
      Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range ...
    • Do plant defenses predict damage by an invasive herbivore? A comparative study of the viburnum leaf beetle 

      Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2014-06-01)
      The impact of plant defenses on insect herbivores is widely accepted, but their relative effects on oviposition choice, survival, and larval growth in preventing pest damage, especially for invasive insects, is not fully ...
    • Does food web complexity eliminate trophic-level dynamics? 

      Hairston, Nelson G., Jr.; Hairston, Nelson G., Sr. (University of Chicago, 1997-05)
    • Dual mechanism of chromatin remodeling in the common shrew sex trivalent (XY1Y2) 

      Matveevsky, S.N.; Pavlova, S.V.; Atsaeva, M.M.; Searle, J.B.; Kolomiets, O.L. (Pensoft Publishers, 2017-11-03)
      Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex ...
    • Effects of varying salinity on phytoplankton growth in a low-salinity coastal pond under two nutrient conditions 

      Barron, S.; Weber, C. F.; Marino, R. M.; Davidson, E. A.; Tomasky, G.; Howarth, R. W. (University of Chicago Press, 2002-10)
      Human activities have clearly caused dramatic alterations of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle, and analyses of the extent and effects of such changes are now common in the scientific literature. However, any attempt to ...
    • Enemy release? An experiment with congeneric plant pairs and diverse above- and belowground enemies 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Kotanen, Peter M.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Power, Alison G.; Godsoe, William; Klironomos, John (Ecological Society of America, 2005-11-01)
      Several hypotheses proposed to explain the success of introduced species focus on altered interspecific interactions. One of the most prominent, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, posits that invading species benefit compared ...
    • Enhancing diversity in undergraduate science: self-efficacy drives performance gains with active learning 

      Ballen, C.J.; Wieman, C.; Salehi, S.; Searle, J.B.; Zamudio, K.R. (American Society for Cell Biology, 2017-12-01)
      Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between ...
    • Estimating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) in the Lake Dianchi basin of China 

      Gao, W.; Howarth, R. W.; Hong, B.; Swaney, D. P.; Guo, H.C. (Copernicus, 2014-08-28)
      Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) with components of atmospheric N deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, agricultural N fixation and N in net food and feed imports from 15 catchments in the Lake Dianchi basin were ...
    • Evidence for adaptive radiation from a phylogenetic study of plant defenses 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Fishbein, Mark; Halitschke, Rayko; Hastings, Amy P.; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rasmann, Sergio (National Academy of Sciences, 2009-10-27)
      One signature of adaptive radiation is a high level of trait change early during the diversification process and a plateau toward the end of the radiation. Although the study of the tempo of evolution has historically been ...
    • Evolution of Plant Growth and Defence in a Continental Introduction 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hastings, Amy P.; Bradburd, Gideon S.; Woods, Ellen C.; Zust, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Bukovinszky, Tibor (University of Chicago Press, 2015-07)
      Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ...
    • Evolution of Specialization: A Phylogenetic Study of Host Range in the Red Milkweed Beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus) 

      Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A. (University of Chicago Press, 2011-05-03)
      Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant ...
    • Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest 

      Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Clement, Wendy L.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (National Academy of Sciences, 2011-02-22)
      It has long been hypothesized that invasive pests may be facilitated by the evolutionary naïveté of their new hosts, but this prediction has never been examined in a phylogenetic framework. To address the hypothesis, we ...
    • Exotic plants contribute positively to biodiversity functions but reduce native seed production and arthropod richness 

      Cook-Patton, Susan C.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2014-06-01)
      Although exotic plants comprise a substantial portion of floristic biodiversity, their contributions to community and ecosystem processes are not well understood. We manipulated plant species richness in old?field communities ...
    • Exploring Rattus praetor (Rodentia, Muridae) as a possible species complex using geometric morphometrics on dental morphology 

      Hulme-Beaman, A.; Cucchi, T.; Evin, A.; Searle, J. B.; Dobney, K. (Elsevier, 2018-04-06)
      Taxonomic uncertainties in the Rattus genus persist due to among-species morphological conservatism coupled with within-species environmental variation in morphology. As a result, this genus contains a number of possible ...
    • Fellow travellers: A concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region 

      Jones, E.P.; Skirnisson, K.; McGovern, T.H.; Gilbert, MTP; Willerslev, E.; Searle, Jeremy B. (BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2012-03-19)
      Background: House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse ...
    • Filling key gaps in population and community ecology 

      Agrawal, Anurag A.; Ackerly, David D.; Adler, Fred; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Caceres, Carla; Doak, Daniel F.; Post, Eric; Hudson, Peter J.; Maron, John L.; Mooney, Kailen A.; Power, Mary; Schemske, Doug; Stachowicz, Jay; Strauss, Sharon; Turner, Monica G.; Werner, Earl (Ecological Society of America, 2007-04-01)
      We propose research to fill key gaps in the areas of population and community ecology, based on a National Science Foundation workshop identifying funding priorities for the next 5–10 years. Our vision for the near future ...
    • Fish size, visual resolution, and prey selectivity 

      Li, Kao T.; Wetterer, James K.; Hairston, Nelson G., Jr. (Ecological Society of America, 1985-12)
      Planktivorous bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are known to consume large prey preferentially. Disagreement exists in the literature over whether this size-selectivity reflects optimal foraging behavior by the fish ...
    • Fitness consequences of occasional outcrossing in a functionally asexual plant (Oenothera biennis) 

      Maron, John L.; Johnson, Mark T.; Hastings, Amy P.; Agrawal, Anurag A. (Ecological Society of America, 2017-12-02)
      Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long?term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field ...